~ FISHERY DEGRADATION: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ~

~ Fishery Basics ~
~ Marine Pollution ~
~ Sustainable Catch ~
~ Harvest/ Population Data ~ Global ~
~ Harvest/ Population Data ~ Regional ~
~ Harvest/ Population Data by Species ~
~ Laws, Treaties, Politics, Conflicts ~
~ Breeding Grounds ~
~ Economic Data ~
~ Fishing Subsidies ~
~ Aquaculture ~
~ Pertinent Organizations ~

Edition 9, October, 2009

by
Bruce Sundquist
bsundquist1@windstream.net

The Alltel Phone Company has been partially bought out by the Windstream phone company. 
As a result, the URL of this website has changed to
http://home.windstream.net/bsundquist1
Before May 15, 2009 both the former URL
http://home.alltel.net/bsundquist1
and the new URL worked. 
After May 15, 2009 only the Windstream URL will work. 

KEYWORDS: Aral Sea, aquaculture, Atlantic Ocean, Bering Sea, Black Sea, By-catch, Carrying Capacity, Caspian Sea, Chesapeake Bay, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, drift nets, estuaries, factory trawlers, fish breeding grounds, fish consumption, fish habitat degradation, fish exports, fish harvest, fish imports, fish populations, fish quotas, fishing fleets, fishing laws, fishing technology, fishing treaties, fishery conflicts, fishery conservation, fishery politics, fishing economics, fishing subsidies, freshwater fish, Gulf of Mexico, mangrove swamps, marine mammals, marine pollution, Mediterranean Sea, Pacific Ocean, salmon, sea lions, seafood prices, sharks, shrimp, shrimp aquaculture, squids, sturgeon, sustainable fish catch, tuna.

Prior Editions: // Ed.2 (7/95) // Ed.3 (6/98) // Ed.4 (4/00) // Ed.5 (12/00) // Ed.6 (7/03) // Ed.7 (4/05) // Ed.8 (10/09 //

~ TABLE OF CONTENTS ~
Note 1: In this document, the notation (la) means that the adjacent information is also in a Land/ Aquatic-Area data file.
Note 2: If the system of units used in this document (normally metric) confuses you, see Chapter (11), Section (11-A).

(1) ~ FISHERY DEGRADATION OVERVIEW ~ [1]~Degradation Mechanisms, [2]~Productivity, [3]~Productivity Growth, [4]~Indirect Fish Consumption, [5]~Fishing Fleets and Technology, [6]~Aquatic Primary Productivity, [7]~Over-fishing and Sustained Yield, [8]~By-catch, [9]~Tragedies of the Commons and Discounting, [10]~Fishery Politics, [11]~Key Habitats, [11a]~Coral Reefs, [11b]~Mangroves, [11c]~Estuaries, [12]~Fishery Economics, [13]~Subsidies for Fishing Industries, [14]~Aquaculture, [15]~Aquaculture Growth, [16]~Aquaculture Impacts - [16A]~Land, [16B]~Fish food, [16C]~Environment, [17]~Carrying Capacity,

(2) ~ SUSTAINABLE CATCH and FISHERY DEGRADATION ~
(2-A) ~
Global ~ [A1]~Net Primary Production Data, [A2]~Trophic-Level Issues, [A3]~Non-Sustainable Fishing, [A4]~By-Catch, [A5]~Spawning Rate vs. Parent Fish Size, [A6]~Over-Fishing, [A7]~Freshwater Fisheries,
(2-B) ~ Atlantic Ocean ~
(2-C) ~
Pacific Ocean ~ [C1]~General, [C2]~Northern Pacific, [C3]~Southern Pacific,
(2-D) ~
Indian Ocean
~

(3) ~ HARVEST/POPULATION DATA ~ GLOBAL ~ [A]~General, [B]~By-Catch, [C]~Low Trophic-Level Species, [D]~Freshwater Capture Species,

(4) ~ HARVEST/ POPULATION DATA - REGIONAL ~
(4-A) ~
Antarctic Area ~ [A1]~General, [A2]~Penguins, [A3]~Whales, [A4]~Krill, [A5]~Patagonia Toothfish,
(4-B) ~ Inland Seas ~ [B1]~Mediterranean Area, [B2]~Black Sea, [B3]~Caspian Sea, [B4]~Aral Sea, [B5]~Azov Sea,
(4-C) ~ Northern Pacific Ocean ~ [C1]~Bering Sea/ Aleutian Basin, [C2]~Russia, [C3]~Alaska, [C4]~Canada and adjacent Areas, [C5]~US West Coast, [C6]~Mexico-Pacific, [C7]~By-Catch,
(4-D) ~ Northern Atlantic Ocean ~ [D1]~General, [D2]~Chesapeake Bay, [D3]~Georges Bank, [D4]~Grand Bank, [D5]~New England Fishery, [D6]~Northeast Atlantic Fishery, [D7]~Bermuda Fishery, [D8]~By-Catch, [D9]~Canada,
(4-E) ~ Southern Pacific Ocean ~
(4-F) ~
Southern Atlantic Ocean / Gulf of Mexico ~ [F1]~Gulf of Mexico, [F2]~African Coast, [F3]~Southwest Atlantic, [F4]~By-Catch,
(4-G) ~ US Coastal Waters ~ [G1]~Fishery Collapses, [G2]~Over-fishing, [G3]~Foreign Catch, [G4]~Catch Data,
(4-H) ~ Harvest and Population Data ~ Freshwater Lakes and Rivers ~

(5) ~ HARVEST/POPULATION DATA - BY SPECIES ~
(5-A) ~
Multi-Species Data Tables ~
(5-B) ~
Marine Mammals ~ [B1]~Whales, [B2]~Bowhead Whale, [B3]~Minke Whale, [B4]~Grey Whale, [B5]~Blue Whale, [B6]~Hump-backed Whale, [B7]~Pilot Whale, [B8]~Porpoise, [B9]~Right Whale, [B10]~Sperm Whale, [B11]~By-Catch, [B12]~Sea Lions, [B13]~Seals, [B14]~Otters,
(5-C) ~ Marine Fin Fish ~ [C1]~Demersal (bottom-dwelling) Species, [C2]~Pollock, [C3]~Miscellaneous Fin Fish, [C4]~Spiny Dogfish, [C5]~Striped Bass, [C6]~Swordfish, [C7]~Sharks, [C8]~By-Catch, [C9]~Groupers,
(5-D) ~ Tuna ~ [D1]~Bluefin Tuna, [D2]~Albacore Tuna,
(5-E) ~ Salmon ~ [E1]~Atlantic Salmon, [E2]~Pacific Salmon,
(5-F) ~ Sturgeon ~
(5-G) ~
Octopus, Squid, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Turtles, etc. - [G1]~Octopus, [G2]~Squid, [G3]~Mollusks, [G4]~Crustaceans, [G5]~Turtles,
(5-H) ~ Sardines, Menhaden and Other Low-Trophic-Level Species - [H1]~Sardines, [H2]~Menhaden, [H3]~Krill, [H4]~Anchoveta,
(5-I) ~ Freshwater Fish / Mussells ~ [I1]~Global, [I2]~Asia, [I3]~Africa, [I4]~North America, [I5]~South America,

(6) ~ FISHERY LAWS, TREATIES, POLITICS, CONFLICTS ~
(6-A) ~
Fishery Laws / Quotas ~ [A1]~General, [A2]~Alaska, [A3]~Australia, [A4]~Bermuda, [A5]~Canada, [A6]~South America, [A7]~Europe, [A8]~Japan, [A10]~US - New England, [A11]~US,
(6-B) ~ Fishery Treaties ~
[B1]~Treaty Enforcement, [B2]~Treaties dealing with Over-fishing, [B3]~Antarctica, [B4]~Drift Nets, [B5]~GATT, [B6]~Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, [B7]~Law of the Sea (EEZs), [B8]~Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, [B9]~Marine Mammals, [B10]~North Atlantic Fisheries Organization, [B11]~North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization, [B12]~Ocean Dumping, [B13]~Pacific Salmon Commission, [B14]~Wellington Convention, [B15]~International Coral Reef Initiative,
(6-C) ~ Fishery Politics / Conflicts ~ [C1]~Miscellaneous, [C2]~Data Fudging, [C3]~International Conflicts, [C4]~Pacific-Northwest Legal Battles over Salmon, [C5]~Implementation of the 1996 Magnusen-Stevens Act, [C6]~European Community, [C7]~Drift Nets, [C8]~Endangered Species Acts (ESA), [C9]~Scientists Over-ruled by Politicians, [C10]~Tragedies of the Commons, [C11]~Whaling, [C12]~Trawlers, [C13]~US Fishery Management Councils, [C14]~Saltwater Recreational Fishing, [C15]~Fishery Law Enforcement,

(7) ~ KEY HABITATS ~ INVENTORIES, DEGRADATION ~
(7-A) ~
Mangroves ~ [A1]~Global, [A2]~Africa, [A3]~Central America, [A4]~South America, [A5]~Oceania, [A6]~Asian Sub-continent, [A7]~Southeast Asia, [A8]~Singapore,~
(7-B) ~ Coral Reefs ~ [B1]~Value, [B2]~Global, [B3]~Damage Mechanisms, [B4]~Africa, [B5]~Arabian Sea, [B6]~Australia, [B7]~Belize, [B8]~Caribbean, [B9]~Costa Rica, [B10]~Florida, [B11]~Southeast Asia, [B12]~Jamaica, [B13]~East Asia, [B14]~Philippines, [B15]~Singapore, [B16]~South America, [B17]~South Pacific, [B18]~Indian Ocean, [B19]~Oceania,~
(7-C) ~ Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands ~ [C1]~Value, [C2]~Global, [C3]~US, [C4]~China, [C5]~Europe, [C6]~First World, [C7]~Southeast Asia, [C8]~Middle East,~
(7-D) ~ Sargassum and Seagrass ~ [D1]~General, [D2]~Management, [D3]~Human Uses, [D4]~Role in Marine Ecosystems,~
(7-E) ~ Key Habitats/ Inventories/ Degradation ~ Freshwater Lakes and Rivers~

(8) ~ HABITAT DEGRADATION ~
(8-A) ~ Aquatic
Pollution ~ [A1]~Aquatic Pollution Economics, [A2]~Oil Discharges, [A3]~Red Tides/ Algae Blooms, [A4]~Oxygen Depletion, [A5]~Bacteria, [A6]~Tumors, [A7]~Toxic Discharges, [A8]~Ballast Discharges~
(8-B) ~ Exotic (introduced) Species ~
(8-C) ~
Physical Habitat Degradation ~ [C1]~Bottom-Trawling and Dredging, [C2]~Factory Trawlers, [C3]~Dams, [C4]~Food Supply, [C5]~Habitat Elimination,~
(8-D) ~ Atmospheric Effects ~ [D1]~Ozone, [D2]~Ocean Temperatures, [D3]~Acid Precipitation,~

(9) ~ ECONOMIC DATA AND ISSUES ~
(9-A) ~
Import - Export Data ~ [A1]~Global, [A2]~Developing Countries, [A3]~Europe, [A4]~First World, [A5]~Latin America, [A6]~US, [A7]~Africa,~
(9-B) ~ Miscellaneous Economic Issues ~ [B1]~Discounting Future Fish Harvests, [B2]~Global - Fishing Industry Employment, [B3]~Global ~ Fishing Fleet Expansion, [B4]~Global ~ Fishery Employment, [B5]~Global ~ Live Fish Trade, [B6]~Global ~ Seafood Prices, [B7]~National Data, [B8]~Sale of Fishing Rights, [B9]~Fishing Economics,~
(9-C) ~ Seafood Consumption - [C1]~Consumption - Global, [C2]~Fish-Protein Consumption, [C3]~Indirect Fish Consumption, [C4]~Aquatic Food-Chain Consumption, [C5]~National Consumption Data,~
(9-D) ~ Subsidies ~ [D1]~Global, [D2]~Canada, [D3]~Europe, [D4]~Taiwan, [D5]~US, [D6]~former USSR,~

(10) ~ AQUACULTURE ~
(10-A) ~
Global Perspective ~ [A1]~Aquaculture Production ~ Global, [A2]~Aquaculture Growth,~
(10-B) ~ Regional Perspective ~ [B1]~Asia, [B2]~China, [B3]~Japan, [B4]~Israel, [B5]~North America, [B6]~South America, [B7]~Europe, [B8]~Australia, [B9]~Africa,~
(10-C) ~ Types of Aquaculture ~ [C1]~General, [C2]~Salmon, [C3]~Shrimp,~
(10-D) ~ Aquaculture Inputs ~ [D1]~Land, [D2]~Fish Food, [D3]~Water,
(10-E) ~ Environmental Impacts ~ [E1]~Miscellaneous, [E2]~Diseases and Parasites, [E3]~Backlash, [E4]~Regulation, [E5]~Pollution, [E6]~Genetic Degradation, [E7]~Toxic Contaminants in Farmed Fish,~

(11) ~ APPENDICES ~
(11-A) ~
Conversion Factors - Precise ~
(11-B) ~
Conversion Factors - Imprecise ~
(11-C) ~
Definitions~
(11-D) ~
Fish Characteristics ~
(11-E) ~
Organizations~
(11-F) ~
Technologies
~
(11-G) ~
Databases ~

(12) ~ References - [A]~Before 1980, [B]~1980-1984, [C]~1985-1989, [D]~1990-1994, [E]~1995-1999, [F]~2000-2004, [G]~2005-2009

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