Edition 6 of July, 2007 (Updated in March of 2008 and December 2010)

[A]~Before 1980 [B]~1980 - 1982 [C]~1983 - 1985 [D]~1986 - 1988 [E]~1989 - 1991 [F]~1992 - 1994 [G]~1995-1997 [H]~1998-2000 [I]~2001-2003 [J]~2004-2006, [K]~2007-2009, [L]~2010-2012
Go to "Sustainability of the Outputs of the World's Grazing Lands"
Go to "Sustainability of the World's Outputs of Food, Wood and Freshwater for Human Consumption"
Go to Grazing Land Degradation: A Global Perspective (Table of Contents) .
Go to Title Page of this entire web site.
(EROS - 4/17/95) means that the reference was extracted from the 4/17/95 annotated bibliography of EROS Land Degradation references.
(su4) means that the reference cited is also used in the sustainability documents mentioned above.

[A] - Before 1980 -

25B1 K. Bryan, "Date of channel trenching (arroyo cutting) in the arid southwest", Science 62 (1925) pp. 338-344.

31F1 C. L. Forsling, "A Study of the Influence of Herbaceous Plant Cover on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion in Relation to Grazing on the Wasatch Plateau in Utah", Technical Bulletin 220, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington DC (1931).

36A1 U. S. Department of Agriculture, The Western Range, Senate Document #199, 74th Congress, 620 pp. (1936).

38W1 C. J. Whitfield, H. L. Anderson, "Secondary succession in the desert plains grassland", Ecology 19 (1938) pp. 171-180.

42D1 W. G. Dore, L. C. Raymond, "Viable Seeds in Pasture Soil and Manure, Scientific Agriculture 23 (1942) pp. 69-76.
42M1 S. K. McIlvane, "Grass Seedling Establishment and Productivity - Overgrazed and Protected Range Soils", Ecology 23 (1942) pp. 228-31.

44H1 Harroy, Jean-Paul, Afrique Terre Qui Meurt: La degradation des sols Africains sous l'influence de la colonization Afrique Terre Qui Meurt: La degradation des sols Africains sous l'influence de la colonization. Marcal Hayez, Bruxelles (1944) 557 pp. French (EROS - 4/17/95).

51P1 R. L. Piemeisel, "Causes Affecting Change and Rate of Change in a Vegetation of Annuals in Idaho", Ecology 32(1) (1951) pp. 53-72.
51R1 R. S. Rummell, "Some Effects of Livestock Grazing on Ponderosa pine Forest and Range in Central Washington", Ecology 32 (1951) pp. 594-607.

54D1 E. G. Dunford, "Surface Runoff and Erosion from Pine Grasslands of the Colorado Front Range", Journal of Forestry, 52 (1954) pp. 923-92.

55S1 L. A. Stoddart, A. Smith, Range Management, edition 2, McGraw Hill, New York NY (1955).

56C1 Andrew H. Clark, "The Impact of Exotic Invasion on the Remaining New World Mid-latitude Grasslands", in Wm. L. Thomas Jr., editor, Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, University of Chicago Press (1956) pp. 737-762.
56D1 F. Fraser Darling, "Man's Ecological Dominance through Domesticated Animals on Wild Lands", in Wm. L. Thomas Jr., editor, Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, University of Chicago Press (1956) pp. 778-87.
56H1 Soliman Huzaygin, "Changes in Climate, Vegetation and Human Adjustment in the Saharo-Arabian Belt, with Specific Reference to Africa", in Wm. L. Thomas Jr., editor, Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, University of Chicago Press (1956) pp. 304-323.
56S1 Carl O. Sauer, "The Agency of Man on the Earth", in Wm. L. Thomas Jr., editor, Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, University of Chicago Press (1956) pp. 49-69.

57B1 Bever, W., "The Incidence and Degree of the Parasitic Load Among Antelope and the Development of Field Techniques to Measure Parasitism", South Dakota Department of Fish and Game, Pierre. Federal Aid Wildlife Restoration Project 12-R-14. Job Outline A-5.2. (1957).

60E1 L. Ellison, "Influence of grazing on plant succession of rangelands", Botanical Review 26 (1960) pp.1-78.

67S1 D. W. Smith, "Effects of Cattle Grazing on a Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass Range in Colorado, Technical Bull.1371 (1967) U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington DC.

69Y1 J. C. York, W. A. Dick-Peddie, "Vegetation Changes in Southern New Mexico During the Past Hundred Years" in W. G. McGinnies and B.J. Goldman, editors, Arid Lands in Perspective, University Press, Tucson Arizona (1969) pp. 153-66.

70C1 J. L. Claudsley-Thompson, "Animal Utilization" in Harold E. Dregne, editor, Arid Lands in Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 57-72.
70D1 Harold E. Dregne, "The Changing Scene", in Arid Lands in Transition, Harold E. Dregne, editor, AAAS (1970) pp. 7-12.
70H1 August L. Hormay, "Principles of Rest-Rotation Grazing and Multiple-Use Management", U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Sept., 1970, Training Text 4 (2200).
70K1 M. Kassas, "Desertification vs. Potential for Recovery in Circum-Saharan Territories", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 123-142.
70L1 H. N. LeHouerou, "North Africa: Past, Present, Future", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp.227-278.
70P1 M. P. Petrov, "Deserts of Asia", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 279-302.
70P2 R. A. Perry, "Productivity of Arid Australia", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 303-316.
70T1 Wyane Thorne, "Agricultural Production in Irrigated Areas", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 31-56.
70X1 Efraim Hernandez Xolocotzi, "Mexican Experience", in Harold E. Dregne, Editor, Arid Lands In Transition, AAAS (1970) pp. 317-343.

71L1 G. C. Lushy, "Hydrologic and Biotic Effects of Grazing vs. Non-grazing near Grand Junction CO", Journal of Range Management (1971) pp. 256-60.
71R1 Ray S. Rauschkolb, Land Degradation, FAO (Rome) (1971) 105 pp.

72H1 Leslie Hood, James K. Morgan, "Whose Home on the Range?", Sierra Club Bulletin, May 1972, pp.5-11.
72K1 E. F. Kleiner and K. T. Harper, "Environment and community organization in grasslands of Canyonlands National Park", Ecology 53 (1972) pp. 229-309.
72L1 W. L. Loope, G.F. Gifford, "Influence of a soil micro-floral crust on select properties of soils under pinyon-juniper in southeastern Utah", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 27 (1972) pp. 164-7.
72Y1 J. A. Young, R. A. Evans, J. Major, "Alien Plants in the Great Plains", Journal of Range Management, 25 (1972) pp. 194-201.

73W1 R. Whittaker G. Likens, in Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, H. Lieth and R. Whittaken, editors, Springer-Verlag, New York (1973).

74C1 Cooke, R. U., "The rainfall context of arroyo initiation in southern Arizona", Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplementband 21 (1974) pp. 63-75 (EROS - 4/17/95).
74C2 W. P. Clary, M.B. Baker Jr., P. F. O'Connell et al, "Effects of Pinyon-juniper Removal on Natural Resource Products and uses in Arizona", USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-128 (1974).
74H1 Bruce Hamilton, "BLM Exposes Own Grazing Abuses", High Country News, 11/8/74, pp. 1-6.
74H2 C. H. Herbel, "A review of Research related to Development of Grazing Systems on Native Ranges of the western U.S. pp.139-149, in Plant Morphogenesis as the Basis for Scientific Management of Range Resources; USDA Miscellaneous Publication1271, Washington DC (1974).
74O1 Joseph Otterman, "Baring High-Albedo Soils by Overgrazing: A Hypothesized Desertification Mechanism", Science 186 (1974) pp. 531-533.
74S1 V. R. Squires, CSIRO Rangelands Research Unit, Deniliquin, N. S. W. "Rangelands of Iran", Arid Land Newsletter, Australia (1974) (EROS - 4/17/95).
74T1 P.T. Tueller and W. H. Blackburn, Condition and Trend of the Big Sagebrush/ needleandthread habitat type in Nevada," Journal of Range Management 27 (1974) pp. 36-40.
74U1 (Author Unknown) "BLM's Confession", Audubon, November 1974, p. 128.

75C1 Jules Charney, Peter H. Stone, Wm. J. Quirk, "Drought in the Sahara: A Bio-geographical Feedback Mechanism", Science 187 (1975) pp. 434-5.
75M1 W. F. Mueggler, "Rate and Pattern of Vigor Recovery in Idaho fescue and Bluebunch Wheatgrass", Journal of Range Management, 28 (1975) pp. l98-204.
75O1 H. K. Orr, "Recovery from Soil Compaction on Bluegrass Range in the Black Hills", Trans.ASAE, 18 (1975) pp.1076-1081.
75S1 Salmon, J. T., "The influence of man on the biota", Biogeography and Ecology in New Zealand, G.Kushel (editor), Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, Chapter 16 (1975) (EROS - 4/17/95).
75W1 T. H. Watkins, "Pastures of Hell", Sierra Club Bulletin, May 1975, p. 4.
75W2 T. H. Watkins, C. S. Watson Jr., The Lands No One Knows: America and the Public Domain, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA (1975) 256 pp.
75W3 Robert H. Whitaker, Gene E. Likens, "The Biosphere and Man", in Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, Helmut Lieth and Robert H. Whitaker, editors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1975).

76C1 Lee Catterall, "Increased Grazing Fees", High Country News, April 9, 1976.
76E1 Erik P. Eckholm, Losing Ground: Environmental Stress and World Food Prospects, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1976).
76E2 John Elkington, "Desertification; A Leprosy of the Soil?", New Science, 10/14/76, pp. 108-9.
76H1 Harlow T. Hodgson, "Forage Crops", Scientific American (Feb. 1976) pp. 61-75.
76K1 Ervin Y. Kedar, "No Desertification Mechanism", Science, 194 (1976) pp. 747-49.
76N1 J. K. Nakata, H. G. Wilshire, G. G. Barnes, "Origin of Mojave Desert Dust Plumes photographed from Space", Geology, 4, November 1976, pp. 644-648.
76O1 Oka Takashi, "Can the Spread of Deserts be Halted?", Christian Science Monitor, 11/11/76, pp. 16-17.
76S1 Wm. Steif, "Desert Threat to World Food a UN Concern", Pittsburgh Press, 10/6/76.
76S2 Robert C. Stebbins, Nathan W. Cohen, "Off-Road Menace", Sierra Club Bulletin, July/Aug., 1976, pp. 33-37.
76W1 H. G. Wilshire, J. K. Nakata, "Off-Road Vehicle Effect on California's Mojave Desert", California Geology, June 1976, pp. 123-132.

77B1 Steve Behrens, "Desertification, Overpopulation on Dry Lands-Deserts in the Making", ZPG National Reporter, Oct.1977, p. 8 (a report on the 1977 UN Conference in Nairobi).
77C1 S. W. Carothers, "Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitats: An Overview", in R. R. Johnson and D. A. Jones, Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitat: A symposium, General Technical Report RM-43, U. S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO (1977).
77G1 R. L. Glinski, "Regeneration and Distribution of sycamores and cottonwood trees along Sonoita Creek, Santa Cruz County Arizona", in R. R. Johnson and D. A. Jones, Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitat: A symposium, General Technical Report RM-43, U. S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO (1977).
77K1 E. F. Kleiner and K. T. Harper, "Soil Properties in relation to cryptogamic groundcover in Canyonlands National Park", Journal of Range Management 30 (1977) pp. 202-05.
77T1 M. J. Trlica, M. Buwai, J. W. Menke, "Effects of Rest Following Defoliations on the Recovery of Several Range Species. Journal of Range Management 30 (1977), pp. 21-26.
77U1 (Author Unknown), "Public Rangeland Still Going Downhill", High Country News, 8/12/77.
77W1 Howard G. Wilshire, "Study Results of 9 Sites Used by Off-Road Vehicles that Illustrate Land Modifications", US Dept. of the Interior, Open File Report 77-601, 22 pp.
77W2 Winegar, Harold H., "Camp Creek Channel Fencing - Plant, Wildlife, Soil, and Water Response", Rangeman's Journal, 4(1) (February 1977) pp.10-12.

78B1 Lester R. Brown, The Twenty-Ninth Day: Accommodating Human Needs and Numbers to the Earth's Resources, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1978) 363 pp.
78B2 Pieter Buringh, "The National Environment and Food Production", in Alternatives for Growth: The Engineering and Economics of Natural Resource Development, H. J. McMains, editor, National Bureau of Economic Research, Ballinger Publishing Co., (1978) pp. 99-129.
78D1 H. E. Dregne, "Desertification: Man's Abuse of the Land", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Jan.-Feb. 1978, pp. 11-14.
78D2 J. E. Dealy, J. M. Geist, R. S. Driscoll, "Western Juniper Communities on the rangelands of the Intermountain West", pp. 11-29 in Proc. Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop, Bend OR, USDA Forest Service, Gen.Tech.Report PNW-74 (1978).
78E1 Erik Eckholm, Lester R. Brown, "Spreading Deserts - The Hand of Man", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, Jan.1978, p.10.
78J1 D. W. James, J. J. Jurinak, "Nitrogen fertilization of dominant plants in the northeastern Great Basin Desert" in N.E. West and J. Skujins, editors Nitrogen in desert ecosystems, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania (1978) pp. 219-231.
78K1 Keller, Wesley, "Feeding the livestock of Iran", Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research 6 (1978) pp.1-11 (EROS - 4/17/95).
78M1 Wm. R. Meehan, Wm. S. Platts, "Livestock Grazing and the Aquatic Environment", Journal of Soil and Water Cons., 33 (1978) pp. 274-278.
78M2 (Same as 78M1).
78M3 R. E. Martin, "Fire Manipulation and Effects in Western Juniper", pp.121-136 in Proc.-Western Juniper Ecology and Management Workshop, Bend OR, USDA Forest Service, Gen.Tech.Report PNW-74 (1978).
78R1 R. C. Rychert, J. Skujins et al, "Nitrogen fixation by lichens and free-living microorganisms in deserts" in N. E. West, J. Skujins, eds, Nitrogen in Desert Ecosystems, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania (1978) pp. 20-30.
78S1 R. H. Sauer, "Effect of Removal of Standing Dead Material on Growth of Agropyron spicatum. Journal of Range Management, 78 (1978) pp. l2l-l22.
78W1 G. M. Woodwell et al, "The Biota and the World Carbon Budget", Science, 199 (1978) pp. 141-146.
78W2 G. M. Woodwell, "The Carbon Dioxide Question", Scientific American, 238 (1978) pp. 34-43.
78W3 Wagner, Frederic H., "Livestock Grazing and the Livestock Industry", pp. 121-45 (Ch. 9) in Howard P. Brokaw, editor, Wildlife and America. (1978).
78Y1 J. A. Young, R. A. Evans, "Population Dynamics after Wildfires in Sagebrush Grasslands", Journal of Range Management 31(4) (1978) pp. 283-289.

79A1 G. L. Atjay, P. Ketner, P. Duvigneaud, "Terrestrial Primary Production and Phytomass", in The Global Carbon Cycle, B. Bolin et al editors (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester UK, 1979) pp. 129-182 (See (90W1), p.123).
79C1 C. Wayne Cook, "Meat Production Potential on Rangelands", Journal Soil and Water Cons., July-Aug., 1979, pp.168-171.
79C2 Council on Environmental Quality, "Environmental Quality -1979", USGPO, Washington DC 20402.
79F1 Philip L. Frodkin, "The Eating of the West", Audubon, Jan.1979, p. 94-.
79F2 Forest Service (USDA), "Annual Grazing Statistical Report, Use Summary, 1976", USGPO, Washington DC 20402, Oct. 1979, 96 pp.
79M1 John R. McGuine, "A Report to Congress on the Nation's Renewable Resources (Review Draft)" Forest Service, USDA, (1979) 209 pp. (P.O. Box 2417, Washington, DC 20013, Attn: J. Lamar Beasly, Director, Resource Program Assessment).
79S1 Carl Sagan, Owen B. Toon, James B. Pollack, "Anthropogeic Albedo Changes and the Earth's Climate", Science, 206, Dec.21, 1979, pp. 1363-68.
79T1 J. W. Thomas, C. Maser, J. E. Rodick, "Wildlife Habitat in Managed Rangelands. The Great Basin of Southeastern Oregon: Riparian Zones", USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Report PNW-80 (1979).
79W1 G. E. Wickens and L. P. White, Land Use in the Southern Margins of the Sahara," p.205-242 in B. H. Walker, editor, Management of Semi-arid Ecosystems," Elsevier, Amsterdam.

[B] - 1980 - 1982 -

80H1 Dwight Hair et al, "An Assessment of the Forest- and Range Land Situation in the United States", FS-345, U. S. Forest Service, Jan. 1980, 631 pp.
80L1 H. N. LeHouerou, "Browse in northern Africa" in H. N. LeHouerou (editor), Browse in Africa, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, (1980) pp. 55-82 (EROS - 4/17/95).
80P1 David Pimentel et al, "The Potential for Grass-Fed Livestock: Resource Constraints", Science 207 (1980) pp. 843-848.
80S1 A. Savory, S. D. Parsons, "The Savory grazing method", Rangelands 2 (1980) pp. 234-237.
80U1 (Author Unknown), "America's Soil and Water: Conditions and Trends", USDA SCS (Dec. 1980) 32 pp.

81B1 Lester R. Brown, Building a Sustainable Society, Worldwatch Institute W. W. Norton and Co., New York, (1981) 433 pp.
81C1 Council on Environmental Quality, "Global 2000 Report to the President", Vol. 1, Gerald O. Barney, editor, USGPO, Washington DC 20402, April 1981.
81C2 Council on Environmental Quality, "Global 2000 Report to the President", Vol. 2, Gerald O. Barney, editor, USGPO, Washington DC 20402, April 1981.
81J1 J. R. Johansen, S. R. Rushford, J. D. Brotherson, "Sub-aerial algae of Navajo National Monument, Arizona", Great Basin Naturalist 41 (1981) pp. 433-439.
81M1 R. N. Mack, "Invasion of Bromus tectorum L. into western North America: An ecological chronicle", Agro-ecosystems, 7 (1981) pp. 145-165.
81N1 National Soil Erosion- Soil Productivity Research Planning Committee, Science and Ed. Admin.-Agricultural Research, "Soil Erosion Effects on Soil Productivity: A Research Perspective", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 36 (1981) pp. 82-90.
81S1 David Sheridan, "Desertification of the United States", Council on Environmental Quality (1981) USGPO, Washington DC 20402.
81S2 David Sheridan, "The Desert Blooms - at a Price", Environment 23(3) (1981) pp. 6-20 and 38-40.
81S3 David Sheridan, "Western Rangelands: Overgrazed and Under-managed", Environment 23(4) (1981) pp.14-20 and 37-39.
81T1 E. W. Tisdale, M. Hironaka, "The Sagebrush-Grass Region: A Review of the Ecological Literature", Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83843. Bull.#33 (1981).
81T2 R. J.Tausch et al, "Tree Age and Dominance Patterns in Great Basin Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands", Journal of Range Management, 34 (1981) pp. 259-64.
81Y1 J. A. Young, R. A. Evans, "Demography and Fire History of a Western Juniper Stand", Journal of Range Management, 34 (1981) pp. 501-505.

82A1 David C. Anderson, K. T. Harper and S. R. Rushforth, "Recovery of Cryptogamic Soil Crusts From Grazing on Utah Winter Ranges", Journal of Range Management, 35(3) (May 1982) pp. 355-359.
82A2 D. C. Anderson, K. T. Harper, R. C. Holmgren, "Factors influencing development of cryptogamic soil crusts in Utah deserts", Journal of Range Management 35 (1982) p. 180-185.
82B1 H. L. Barrows, R. J. McCracken, R. J. Miller et al, "Report on China", Journal Soil and Water Conservation, 37 (1982) pp. 309-318.
82B2 L. D. Bryant, "Response of Livestock to Riparian Zone Exclusion", Journal of Range Management, 35 (1982) pp. 780-785.
82C1 Comptroller General, "Public Range-Land Improvement - A Slow, Costly Process in Need of Alternative Funding", Report to the Congress, GAO/RCED-82-23 (Oct.14, 1982) 70 pp. (GAO, POB 6015, Gaithersburg MD 20760) or USGPO.
82G1 Goodson, M. J., "Effects of Domestic Sheep Grazing on Bighorn Sheep Populations: A Review", In Biannual Symposium and Goat Council, 3 (1982) pp. 287-313.
82L1 D. A. Lemly, "Modification of Benthic Insect Communities in Polluted Streams: Combined Effects of Sedimentation and Nutrient Enrichment", Hydrobiologia, 87 (1982) pp. 229-245.
82M1 Layne Miller, "Grazing Rights Extended in Capital Reef", High Country News, 10/15/82.
82M2 Michel Meybeck, "C, N, and P Transport by the World's Rivers", American Journal of Science, 282 (1982) pp. 401-450.
82M3 Mack, Richard N. and John N. Thompson, "Evolution in Steppe With Few Large, Hooved Mammals", The American Naturalist, 119(6) (1982) (June) pp. 757-773.
82O1 R. D. Ohmart and B. W. Anderson, "North American Desert Riparian Ecosystems", in G. L. Bender, editor, Reference Handbook on the Deserts of North America, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut (1982) pp.433-79.
82R1 Jim Robbins, "Rest-Rotation; Restore the Range", High Country News, 6/11/82.
82R2 L. R. Roath, W. C. Krueger, "Cattle Grazing and Influence on a Forested Range", Journal of Range Mgmt., 35 (1982) pp. 332-338.
82S1 J. E. Sabadell et al, "Desertification in the U.S.", Bureau of Land Management, Dept. of the Interior, (1982) USGPO, Washington DC 20402, 277 pp.
82W1 Maryla Webb, Judith Jacobsen, "U. S. Carrying Capacity: An Introduction", Carrying Capacity Inc, June 1982 (1735 De Sales St. NW, 8th Fl, Washington, DC 20036.

[C] - 1983 - 1985 -

83B1 H. Breman, C. T. deWit, "Rangeland Productivity and Exploitation in the Sahel", Science, 221 (1983) pp. 1341-1347.
83B2 Thadis W. Box, "A Billion Acres of Rangeland: Our Nation's Multiple-Use Lands", in Jack Hayes, editor, 1983 Yearbook of Agriculture, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (1983) pp. 76-85.
83C1 Jerry R. Cox, H. L. Morton et al, "Reviving Arizona's Rangelands", Journal Soil and Water Conservation, 38 (1983) pp. 342-5.
83C2 D. J. Carder and M. G. Humphry, "The costs of land degradation", Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, No.2 (1983) pp. 50-53 (EROS - 4/17/95).
83C3 H. J. Cook, "The struggle against environmental degradation - Botswana's experience", Desertification Control 8 (1983) pp. 9-15 (EROS - 4/17/95).
83C4 M. J. Crawley, Herbivory: The Dynamics of Animal-Plant Interactions, University of California Press, Berkeley (1983).
83D1 H. E. Dregne, Desertification of arid lands, Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur Switzerland.
83H1 Gary L. Howard, Steven R. Johnson, Stanley L. Ponce, "Cattle Grazing Impact on Surface Water Quality in a Colorado Front Range Stream", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, (1983) (March/ April) pp.124-128.

83H2 J. T. Hennessey, R. P. Gibbens, J. M. Tromble and M. Cardenas, "Vegetation change from 1935 to 1980 in mesquite dunelands and former grasslands of southern New Mexico," Journal of Range Management 36 (1983) pp. 370-374.
83M1 M. H. Madany, N. E. West, "Livestock grazing-fire regime Interactions within Montane Forests of Zion National Park, Utah", Ecology 64 (1983) pp. 661-667.
83N1 James D. Nations, Daniel I.Komer, "Rainforests and the Hamburger Society", Environment, 25(3) (1983) pp. 12-19.
83O1 J. S. Olson, J. A. Watts, L. J. Allison, Carbon in Live Vegetation of Major World Ecosystems (U.S. Dept. of Energy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1983) (See (90W1), p. 123).
83R1 P. Rippel, R. D. Pieper, G. A. Lymbery, "Vegetational Evaluation of Pinyon-Juniper Cabling in South-Central New Mexico", Journal of Range Management, 36 (1983) pp. 13-15.
83S1 Earl D. Sandvig, "The Grazing Scandal on Public Lands", in Not Man Apart, July/ August 1983, p. 11.
83T1 Derrick J. Thom and Niels L. Martin, "Ecology and production in Baringo-Kerio Valley, Kenya", The Geographical Review 73(1) (1983) pp. 15-29 (EROS - 4/17/95).
83T2 E. T. Thorne, T. J. Walthall and S. L. Anderson, "The Effects of Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Hardjo in Pronghorn Antelope", Pages 38-45 in Wyoming Game and Fish Department Fed. Aid. Wildl. Restor., Proj. CA1, Job BCSWCBG551. (1983).

84B1 Lester R. Brown, "Overview", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1984, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1984) pp. 1-19.
84B2 Sandra Brown, Ariel E. Lugo, "Biomass of Tropical Forests: A New Estimate Based of Forest Volume", Science 223 (1984) pp. 1290-93.
84E1 R. A. Evans, J. A. Young, "Microsite Requirements for Downy Brome Infestation and Control of Sagebrush Rangelands", Weed Science, 32 (1984) Supp.1, pp. 13-17.
84P1 W. S. Platts, F. J. Wagstaff, "Fencing to control livestock Grazing on Riparian Habitats along Streams: is it a viable Alternative?", N. Amer. Journal of Fish Management, 4 (1984) pp. 266-272.
84R1 John F. Richards, "Global Patterns of Land Conversion", Environment, 26(9) (1984) pp. 6-13 and 34-38.
84S1 J. M. Skovlin, "Impact of grazing on wetlands and Riparian Habitat: A Review of Our Knowledge", pp.1001-1103 in Developing Strategies for Range Management, Westview Press, Boulder CO (1984).
84S2 L. L. St. Clair, B. L. Webb, J. R. Johansen and G. T. Nebeker, "Cryptogamic soil crusts: Enhancement of seedling establishment in disturbed and undisturbed areas", Reclamation and Revegetation Research 3 (1984) pp. 129-136.
84W1 N. E. West, "Successional Patterns and Productivity Potentials of Pinyon-juniper Ecosystems", pp. 1301-32 in Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management, National Research Council, Boulder CO, Westview Press (1984).
84W2 N. E. West, F. D. Provenza, P. S. Johnson and M. K. Owens, "Vegetation changes after 13 years of livestock grazing on sagebrush semi-desert in west-central Utah," Journal of Range Management 37 (1984) pp. 263-264.
84Z1 G. T. Zimmerman, L. F. Neuenschwander, "Livestock Grazing Influences on Community Structure, Fire Intensity, and Fire Frequency Within the Douglas-fir/ninebark Habitat Type. Journal of Range Management. 37 (1984) pp. 104-110.

85B1 Lester R. Brown, "A False Sense of Security" in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1985, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1985) pp. 3-22.
85B2 Lester R. Brown, "Maintaining World Fisheries", in Linda Starks, editor, State of the World 1985, W.W. Norton and Co., New York, (1985) pp. 73-96.
85C1 Caroline Cox, "Rangeland Weeds and Overgrazing in the American Southwest: A Interview with Michael Gregory", Journal of Pesticide Reform, fall, 1985.
85D1 Harold E. Dregne, "Aridity and Land Degradation", Environment, 27(8) (1985) pp. 16-20 and 28-33.
85E1 Brock Evans, "Overgrazing. Making a Wasteland of the Western Range", Audubon Action, August 1985.
85E2 R. A. Evans, J. A.Young, "Plant Succession Following Control of Western Juniper with Picloram", Weed Science 33 (1985) pp. 63-68.
85F1 P. G. H. Frost, "The Responses of Savanna Organisms to Fire", pp.232-237 in Ecology and Management of the World's Savannas, J. C. Tothill and J. J. Mott editors, Australian Academy of Science (1985).
85H1 J. R. Hastings, R. M. Turner, "The Changing Mile: An ecological study of vegetation changes with time in the lower mile of an arid and semiarid region", University of Arizona Press, Tucson Arizona (1985).
85K1 Richard A. Kerr, "Fifteen Years of African Drought", Science, 227 (1985) pp.1453-54.
85R1 Noel Rosetta, Sierra, March/ April 1985, pp. 43-47.
85R2 Kenneth G. Renard, Jerry R. Cox, and Donald F. Post, "Effects of soil erosion on productivity in the Southwest" in R.F. Follett and B.A. Stewart (editors), Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wi. (1985) pp. 321-334 (EROS - 4/17/95).
85R3 W. H. Rickard, "Experimental Cattle Grazing in a Relatively Undisturbed Shrubsteppe Community", Northwestern Science, 59 (1985) pp. 66-72.
85W1 B. H. Walker, "Structure and Function of Savannas: An Overview" pp. 83-92 in Ecology and Management of the World's Savannas, J. C. Tothill and J. J. Mott editors, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra (1985).

[D] - 1986 - 1988

86C1 Committee on Government Operations, "Federal Grazing Program: All Is Not Well on the Range", US Government Printing Office. (1986).
86E1 R. E. Eckert Jr. et al, "Effects of Soil Surface Morphology on Emergence and Survival of Seedlings in Big Sagebrush Communities", Journal Range Management, 39(5) (1986) pp. 414-420.
86G1 Grainger, Alan, Desertification (London, Earthscan, 1986).
86J1 Lynn Jacobs, "Free our Public Lands", A 48-page tabloid available from its author at P.O. Box 2203, Cottonwood AZ 86326 (Ref. (91J1) is an updated, greatly expanded version).
86J2 Johansen, Jeffrey R. and Larry L. St. Clair, "Cryptogamic Soil Crusts: Recovery from Grazing Near Camp Floyd State Park, UT, USA", Great Basin Naturalist, 46(4) (October 1986) pp.632-640.
86L1 Jimmy T. LeBaume, Bill E. Dahl, "Communal Grazing: the Case of the Mexican Ejido", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 41 (1986) pp. 24-7.
86S1 Suk T, et al., "Water Contamination with Giardia in Backcountry Areas", Proceedings of the National Wilderness Conference, USDA, Ogden UT, pp.238-239. (1986).
86V1 Peter M. Vitousek et al, "Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis", Bioscience, 36(6) (1986) pp. 368-73.
86V2 Peter M. Vitousek, Paul R. Ehrlich, Ann H. Ehrlich, Pamela A. Matson, "Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis", Bioscience, 36(6) (1986) pp. 368-373.
86W1 Wang, Qingming "China Building green Great Wall to Combat Desertification", The Vanguard, 29 March 1986.

87D1 R. S. Dalen, W.R. Snyder, "Economic and Social Aspects of Pinyon-juniper treatment-then and now", pp. 343-50 in R. L. Everett (editor) Proc. - Pinyon-Juniper Conference, USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Report INT-215 (1987).
87E1 Gerd Esser, "Sensitivity of Global Carbon Pools and Fluxes to Human- and Potential Climatic Impacts", Tellus, 39B (1987) pp. 245-260.
87E2 R. E. Eckert, Jr. J. S. Spencer, "Growth and Reproduction of Grasses Heavily Grazed under Rest-rotation Management", Journal of Range Management. 40 (1987) pp. 156-159.
87F1 K.E. Franzreb, "Perspectives on managing riparian ecosystems for endangered bird species", Western Birds 18 (1987) pp. 3-9.
87G1 Michael H. Glantz, "Drought in Africa", Scientific American (June, 1987) pp. 34-40.
87H1 Patricia S. Honeycutt, "Public Land Grazing - or - How to create Desert While Paying Your VISA Bill", Forest Watch 7 (1987) pp. 8-12.
87H2 R. B. Hacker, "Species Responses to Grazing and Environmental Factors in an Arid Halophytic Shrubland Community", Australian Journal of Botany, 45 (1987) pp. 135-50.
87J1 T. N. Johnsen, "Using Herbicides for Pinyon-Juniper Control in the Southwest", pp. 330-334 in R. L. Everett (editor) Proc.-Pinyon-Juniper Conference, USDA Forest Service, General Tech. Report INT-215 (1987).
87J2 D. L. Jeffries, J.M. Klopatek, "Effects of Grazing on the vegetation of the blackbrush association", Journal of Range Management 40 (1987) pp. 390-392.
87K1 E. T. Karlstrom, T.N.V. Karlstrom, "Later Quaternary alluvial history of the American West: toward a process paradigm", Geology 15 (1987) pp. 88-89.
87L1 Justin Lowe, "Livestock is Killing the Land", Earth Island Journal (Summer 1987) pp.15-16.
87L2 J. R. Lacey, "The influence of Livestock Grazing on Weed Establishment and Spread". Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Science 47 (1987) pp. 131-146.
87M1 Dreter Mahlein, "Grazing Threatens Native Wildlife", Forest Watch (January 1987), p. 14.
87M2 MacKenzie, Debora, "Can Ethiopia be saved?", New Scientist, 115(1579) (1987) pp. 54-58.
87R1 John Robbins, "A Diet for a New America" (1987).
87S1 J. M. Skovlin, "Southern Africa's experience with intensive short-duration grazing", Rangelands 9 (1987) pp. 162-168.
87S2 B. I. Strassman, "Effects of cattle grazing and haying on wildlife conservation at National Wildlife Refuges in the United States", Environmental management 11 (1987) pp. 35-44.
87T1 Tolsma, D. J., Ernst, W.H.O. and Verwey, R. A., "Nutrients in Soil and Vegetation Around Two Artificial Waterpoints in Eastern Botswana", Journal of Applied Ecology, 24: (1987) pp. 991-1000.
87U1 (Author Unknown), "Stop the Grazing Fee Rip-off", Sierra Club, 730 Polk St., San Francisco, CA 94109 (10/22/87).
87W1 Wallace, Mark C and Paul R. Krausman, "Elk, Mule Deer, and Cattle Habitats in Central Arizona", Journal of Range Management, 40(1) (January 1987) pp. 80-83.

88B1 Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, "The Earth's Vital Signs", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1988, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1988) pp. 3-21.
88B2 Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, "Reclaiming the Future", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1988, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1988) pp. 170-188.
88D1 James Duffus III et al, "Public Rangelands: Some Riparian Areas Restored, but Widespread Improvements will be Slow", U. S. General Accounting Office, June 1988, 85 pp. GAO/RCED-88-105 Riparian Areas (order from USGAO, P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20877).
88E1 R. A. Evans, "Management of Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands", USDA Forest Service, General Tech.Report INT-249 (1988).
88F1 Friedel M. H., Bastin G. N. and G. F. Griffin, "Range assessment and monitoring in arid lands: the derivation of functional groups to simplify vegetation data," Journal of Environmental Management," 27: (1988) pp. 85-97 (Australian research).
88G1 General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, "Public Rangelands: Some Riparian Areas Restored but Widespread Improvement Will Be Slow," GAO/RCED-88-105, 6/88.
88H1 K. T. Harper, J. R. Marble, "A Role for Non-vascular Plants in Management of Arid and Semi-arid Rangelands", pp.135-69 in P. T. Tueller (editor), Vegetation Science Applications for Rangelands Analysis and Management, Marinus Nijhoff, Amsterdam (1988) or Kluwer Academic Publishers, London UK (1988).
88L1 Marcia Lowe, "The Sahara Swallows Mauritania", World Watch, 1(5) (1988) pp. 38-39.
88P1 R. D. Pieper, R. K. Heitschmidt, "Is Short-Duration Grazing the Answer?" Journal Soil and Water Conservation, 43 (1988) pp.133-137.
88P2 R. D. Pieper, R. K. Heitschmidt, "Is Short-duration Grazing the Answer?" Journal Soil and Water Conservation, 43 (1988) pp. 133-137.
88S3 Stephen Stueber, "Ranchers Again Keep Lid on Grazing Fees", High Country News, Feb.29, 1988.
88W1 W. G. Whitford, "Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling in Disturbed Arid Ecosystems", Ch.7 in E. B. Allen (editor), The Reconstruction of Disturbed Arid Lands: an Ecological Approach, Westview Press, Boulder CO (1988).

[E] - 1989 - 1991 -

89B1 F. C. Bryant et al, "Does Short-Duration Grazing Work in Semi-Arid Regions?", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 44 (1989) pp. 290-296.
89C1 Han Chunru, "Recent changes in the rural environment in China", Journal of Applied Ecology 26 (1989) pp. 803-812 (EROS -4/17/95).
89C2 W. P. Clary, B. F. Webster, "Managing Grazing of Riparian areas in the Intermountain Region. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-263 (1989).
89D1 James Duffus III, "The Bureau of Land Management Needs Reforming", Public Lands (Sierra Club Public Lands Committee Newsletter) (4/7/89).
89D2 J. F. Dormaar, S. Smoliak, W. D. Willms, "Vegetation and soil response to short-duration grazing on fescus grasslands", Journal of Range Management 42 (1989) pp. 252-256.
89F1 Fu, Bojie, "Land use and management on the Loess Plateau", Chinese Journal of Arid Land Research 2 (1989) pp. 361-368 (EROS -4/17/95).
89H1 R. H. Hart, M. F. Samuel, J. W. Waggoner,Jr. M. A. Smith, "Comparisons of grazing systems in Wyoming", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, (1989) pp. 344-347.
89J1 A. S. Johnson, "The thin green line: Riparian corridors and endangered species in Arizona and New Mexico" in G. Mackintosh, editor, In Defense of Wildlife: Preserving Communities and Corridors, Defenders of Wildlife, Washington DC (1989).
89L1 J. R. Lacey, C. B. Marlow, J. R. Lane, "Influence of Spotted Knapweed on Surface Runoff and Sediment Yield", Weed Technology, 3 (1989) pp. 627-631.
89M1 Mack, R. N., "Temperate Grasslands Vulnerable to Plant Invasions: Characteristics and Consequences". Pp.155-179 in J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. Di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson, editors Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Chinchester, Great Britain (1989).
89N1 Noy-Meir, I., Gutman, M. and Y. Kaplan, "Responses of Mediterranean grassland plants to grazing and protection," Journal of Ecology 77: (1989) pp. 299-310. (Israel research)
89P1 Sandra Postel, "Land's End", WorldWatch (May-June 1989) pp. 12-20.
89P2 Sandra Postel, "Halting Land Degradation", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1989, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1989) pp. 21-40.
89P3 W. S. Platts, "Compatibility of Livestock Grazing Strategies with Fisheries. In. Riparian Resource Management. Ed by Gresswell, R. E., B.A. Barton, and J. L Kershner. USDI, BLM, Billings MT (1989).
89R1 Marc Reisner, "Guess Who's Drinking the West Dry: Cows, That's Who", Audubon Activist (March/April 1989) p. 4.
89R2 M. Rejamnek, "Invasibility of Plant Communities", pp. 369-387 in J. A. Drake et al (editors) Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, John Wiley and Sons (1989) Chinchester 525 pp.
89S1 R.C. Szaro, "Riparian Forest and Scrubland Community Types of Arizona and New Mexico", Desert Plants, 9(3-4) (1989) pp. 69-138.
89U1 (Author Unknown) "Change on the Range", Forest Watch (September 1989) pp. 21-25.
89W1 George Wuerthner, "Public Lands Grazing - It's Time to Just Say No", Forest Watch, (November 1989) pp. 20-25.
89W2 Johanna Wald, "Our Ailing Public Rangelands: Condition Report-1989", National Wildlife Federation and Natural Resources Defense Council, (October1989), 115 pp.
89W3 D. S. Wilcove et al, "Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the US", Bioscience 48 (1998) pp. 607-615.

90B1 Lester R. Brown, "The Illusion of Progress", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1990, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1990) pp. 3-16.
90B2 W. D. Billings, "Bromus Tectorum, a Biotic Cause of Ecosystem Impoverishment in the Great Basin", in G. M. Woodwell (editor), The Earth in Transition: Patterns and Processes of Biotic Impoverishment, Cambridge University Press, N.Y. (1990) 530 pp.
90C1 Ed Chaney, Wayne Elmore, William S. Platts, Livestock Grazing on Western Riparian Areas, Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Denver, Colorado (July 1990) 45 pp.
90G1 General Accounting Office, Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Lands, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, "Rangeland Management: BLM Efforts to Prevent Unauthorized Livestock Grazing Need Strengthening," GAO/RCED-91-17, 12/90.
90L1 LeHouerou, H. N., "Agro-forestry and sylvo-pastoralism to combat land degradation in the Mediterranean Basin: Old approaches to new problems", Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 33 (1990) pp. 99-109 (EROS - 4/17/95).
90L2 J. R. Lacy, "Influence of Livestock Grazing on Weed Establishment and Spread", Knapweed 4(3) (1990).
90M1 G. R. McPherson, H. A. Wright, "Effects of Cattle Grazing and Juniperus Pinchotti Canopy Cover on herb Cover and Production in Western Texas", American Midl. Nat., 123 (1990) pp. 144-51.
90M2 John Modeley, "Tree Cutting Blamed for Drought Danger in West Africa", Pittsburgh Press (4/4/90).
90R1 Royte, Elizabeth, "Showdown In Cattle Country", The New York Times Magazine, (1990)(12/16) pp. 60-70.
90S1 Wm. H. Schlesinger, "Biological Feedbacks in Global Desertification", Science, 247 (1990) pp.1043-1048.
90S2 T. T. Sc1hulz, W. C. Leininger, "Differences in Riparian Vegetation Structure between Grazed Areas and Exclosures", Journal of Range Management. 43 (1990) pp. 295-299.
90S3 M. Savage, T.W.Swetnam, "Early 19th Century Fire Decline Following Sheep Pasturing in a Navajo Ponderosa Pine Forest", Ecology 71 (1990) pp. 2374-2378.
90V1 J. F. Valentine, Grazing Management, Academic Press, Inc., New York (1990).
90V2 P. M. Vitousek,"Biological Invasions and Ecosystem Processes: Toward an Integration of Population Biology and Ecosystem Studies", Oikos 57(1) (1990) pp. 7-13.
90W1 World Resources Institute, World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York (1990) 383 pp.
90W2 Whisenant, S., "Changing Fire Frequencies on Idaho's Snake River Plains: Ecological and Management Implications. Pages 4-10 in Proceedings From the Symposium on Cheatgrass Invasion, Shrub Dieoff and Other Aspects of Shrub Biology and Management. General Technical Report INT-276, US Forest Service, Ogden, UT (1990).
90W3 Wuerthner, George, "The Price is Wrong", Sierra (September-October 1990) pp. 38-43.
90W4 J. J. Wagoner, History of the Cattle Industry in Southern Arizona, (1990).

91A1 Meinrat O. Andreae, "Biomass Burning; Its History, Use and Distribution, and Its Impact on Environmental Quality and Global Climate", in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric Climatic and Biospheric Implications, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1991).
91A2 L. D. Anderson, "Bluebunch Wheatgrass Defoliation: Effects and Recovery", USDI: BLM-Idaho State Office. Technical Bulletin 91-02 (1991) 21 pp.
91A3 S. Archer, D. E. Smeins, "Ecosystem level Processes", Chapter 5 in R. K. Heitschmidt and J. W. Stuth, Grazing Management: An Ecological perspective, Timber Press, Portland OR (1991).
91A4 Armour, C. L., D. A. Duff and W. Elmore, "The Effects of Livestock Grazing on Riparian and Stream Ecosystems", Fisheries, 16 (1991) pp. 7-11.
91B1 Holly Brough, "Holy Cows, Unholy Trouble", WorldWatch, 4(5) (1991) pp. 19-21.
91B2 C. J. Bahre, "A Legacy of Change: Historic human impact on vegetation of the Arizona borderlands", University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ (1991).
91D1 Alan B. Durning, Holly B. Brough, "Taking Stock: Animal Farming and the Environment", WorldWatch Paper #103 (July 1991) 62 pp.
91D2 James Duffus III, "Forest Service Not Performing Needed Monitoring of Grazing Allotments", U.S. General Accounting Office, GAO/RCED-91-148, May, 1991, 8 pp. (Order from US GAO, P.O. Box 6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20877).
91D3 Robert A. Delmas, "Biomass Burning in Africa: An Assessment of Annual Burned Biomass" in Joel S. Levine, editor, Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, MIT Press, Cambridge MA (1991).
91G1 General Accounting Office, Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Lands, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, "Rangeland Management: Comparison of Rangeland Condition Reports," GAO/RCED-91-191 (7/91).
91G2 General Accounting Office, Briefing Report to the Chairman, Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, "Rangeland Management: Current Formula Keeps Grazing Fees Low," GAO/RCED-91-185BR, 6/91.
91H1 G. A. Harris, Grazing Lands of Washington State, Rangelands 13 (1991) pp. 222-227.
91J1 Lynn Jacobs, Waste of the West: Public Lands Grazing, P.O. Box 5784, Tucson, AZ 85703 602 pp. (1991) (perhaps the most complete, up-to-date analysis of public-lands grazing ever).
91J2 Veena Joshi, "Biomass Burning in India", in Joel S. Levine, editor, Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1991).
91L1 Loft, Eric R., John W. Menke and John G. Kie, "Habitat Shifts By Mule Deer: The Influence of Cattle Grazing", Journal of Wildlife Management, 55(1) (1991) pp. 16-26.
91O1 L. R. Oldeman et al, "The Extent of Human-Induced Soil Degradation", in L. R. Oldeman et al, World Map of the Status of Human-Induced Soil Degradation, Wageningen, Netherlands; UNEP and International Soil Reference and Information Centre (1991).
91O2 L. R. Oldeman et al, "World Map of the Status of Human-Induced Soil Degradation: An Explanatory Note", Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD), International Soil Reference Information Center (ISRIC) and United Nations Environment Program (1991).
91V1 Vegetarian Voice. News Notes. Dolgeville, NY: North American Vegetarian Society, Vegetarian Voice, 18(3) (1991) p.13.
91W1 Johanna Wald, Ken Rait, Rose Strickland, Joe Feller, "How Not to be Cowed: Livestock Grazing on the Public Lands: An Owner's Manual" (1991) 70 pp. Sierra Club, P.O. Box 8409, Reno NV 89507.
91W2 George Wuerthner, "Employees Struggle to Fulfill NEPA on Upper Ruby," Inner Voice (Summer 1991).

[F] - 1992 - 1994 -

92B1 Jeff Barker, "Ranching Brothers tilt with Regulators," The Arizona Republic (9/14/92).
92B2 D. J. Bedunah, "The Complex Ecology of Weeds, Grazing, and Wildlife", Western Wildlands (Summer 1992) pp. 6-11.
92C1 Cathy Carlson and John Horning, "Big Profits at a Big Price: Public Land Ranchers Profit at the Expense of the Range," National Wildlife Federation, Washington DC, 9/92 (citing US Bureau of Land Management and US USFS, "Grazing Fee Review and Evaluation Update of the 1986 Final Report," 4/30/92).
92D1 Durning, A. T. and Brough, H. B., Reforming the livestock economy, In: State of the World, Brown, L. R. (editor), W. W. Norton and Co, New York (1992) p. 66-82.
92D2 Davies-Colley, R. J., C. W. Hickey, J. M. Quinn and P. A. Ryan, "Effects of Clay Discharges on Streams 1. Optical Properties and Epilithon", Hydrobiologia, 248 (1992) pp. 215-234.
92D3 Dregne, H. and Chou, N., Global desertification: dimensions and costs. In H. Dregne, editor Degradation and restoration of arid lands. Lubbock, Texas Tech. University (1992).
92F1 Murray Feshbach, "Russia's Farms, Too Poisoned for The Plow", Wall Street Journal (5/14/92) (Based on M.F. and Alfred Friendly, Jr., Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature Under Seige, Basic Books (1992)).
92G1 General Accounting Office, "Rangeland Management: Profile of the Bureau of Land Management's Grazing Allotments and Permits", GAO/RCED-92-213FS, US General Accounting Office. (June 1992).
92G1 General Accounting Office, Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, "Rangeland Management: Profile of the Bureau of Land Management's Grazing Allotments and Permits," GAO/RCED-92-213FS, (June 1992).
92I1 Inspector General Office, Audit Report, "Selected Grazing Lease Activities, Bureau of Land Management," Report 92-I-1364 (September 1992).
92K1 B. L. Kovalchik, W. Elmore, "Effects of cattle grazing systems on willow-dominated plant associations in central Oregon", in W. P. Clary et al, compilers, Proceedings of the symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities, General Technical Report INT-289, US Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT (1992).
92M1 Henry L. Mortimer Jr., "Laying Out Land Loss", Environment, 34(4) (1992) pp. 23-24.
92O1 M. Oesterheld, O. E. Sala, S. J. McNaughton, "Effects of Animal Husbandry on Herbivore Carrying-Capacity at a Regional Scale", Nature, 356 (1992) pp. 234-236.
92O2 P. J. O'Reagain, J. R. Turner, "An evaluation of the empirical basis for grazing management recommendations for rangeland in southern Africa", Journal Grassland Society, Southern Africa 9 (1992) pp. 1-52.
92W1 Charles F. Wilkinson, Crossing the Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West, Island Press, 1992.

93B1 Rocky Barker, "Groups say rich ranchers get free ride," High Country News (12/13/93).
93B2 T. E. Bedeli, L. E. Eddleman, T. Deboodt, C. Jacks, "Western Juniper - its Impact and Management in Oregon Rangelands", Oregon State University Extension Service (1993).
93B3 Belnap, Jayne, "Recovery Rates of Cryptobiotic Crusts: Inoculant Use and Assessment Methods", Great Basin Naturalist, 53(1) (1993) (3/31) pp. 89-95.
93B4 Behnke, R., Scoones, I. and Kerven, C., editors, Range ecology at disequilibrium. New models of natural variability and pastoral adaptation in African savannas. London, Overseas Development Institute (1993).
93C1 Congressional Budget Office, "Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options," A Report to the Senate and House Committees on the Budget, (February 1993).
93E1 R. D. Evans, J. R. Ehleringer, "A Break in the Nitrogen Cycle in Arid Lands? Evidence from N15 Isotope of Soils", Oecologia, 94 (1993) pp. 314-317.
93F1 Herve' Fritz, Patrick Duncan, "Large Herbivores in Rangelands", Nature, 364 (1993) pp.292-293.
93G1 Rose Gutfeld, "U.S. Renews its Efforts to Overhaul Grazing Policy, Calling for Higher Fees", Wall Street Journal (8/10/93).
93G2 General Accounting Office, Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, "Rangeland Management: Profile of the USFS's Grazing Allotments and Permittees," GAO/RCED-93-141FS (April 1993).
93H1 Jerry L. Holechek, "Policy Changes on Federal Rangelands: A Perspective", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 48 (1993) pp. 166-174.
93H2 R. H. Hart, S. Clapp, P. S. Test, "Grazing Strategies, Stocking rates, and Frequency and Intensity of Grazing on Western Wheatgrass and Blue Grama", Journal of Range Management. 46 (1993) pp. 122-126.
93L1 Jing Neng Li, "Significant impacts of population growth on economic development and the environment in China", in Population, Environment and Development, 1993, pp. 88-95, New York, UN.
93M1 Yacob Maul, Vitaly Garmanov, J.S. Rikoon, "Soil Conservation and Agricultural Land-use Issues in Kazakhstan", Journal Soil and Water Conservation, 48 (1993) pp. 83-88.
93M2 Mosley, J. C., T. A. Lance, J. W. Walker, D. E. Lucas and C. M. Falter. 1993. How Does Grazing Affect Water Quality? Page 5 in D. Ortiz, editor. Focus on Renewable Natural Resources. Idaho Forest, Wildlife, Range Experiment Station, 1992 Annual Report.
93P1 Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, "Public Trust Betrayed: Employee Critique of Bureau of Land Management Rangeland Management", Washington, DC: Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, 17 pp. (1993).
93S1 L. L. St. Clair, J. R. Johansen, "Introduction to the Symposium on Soil Crust Communities", Great Basin Nat. 53 (1993) pp.1-4.
93V1 M. Vicari, D. R. Bazeley, "Do grasses fight back? The case for anti-herbivore defenses", Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (1993) pp. 137-141.

94A1 S. Archer, "Woody Plant Encroachment into the Southwestern Grasslands and Savannas: Rate, Patterns and Proximate Causes, pp. 13-68 in M. Vavra et al (editors) Ecological Implications of Livestock herbivory in the West, Society for Range Management, Denver CO (1994).
94B1 Lester R. Brown, in Linda Starke, editor, Vital Signs 1994, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1994) pp. 30-31.
94B2 Bruce Babbitt, "Rangeland Reform '94", Bureau of Land Management and U. S. Forest Service (1994) 201 pp.
94B3 Lester R. Brown, Hal Kane, Full House: Reassessing the Earth's Population Carrying-Capacity, W.W. Norton and Co., New York (1994) 262 pp.
94B4 Philip Brasher, "Grazing Fee Hike May Spur Defaults," Albuquerque Journal (6/16/94).
94B5 Belnap, Jayne, Potential Role of Cryptobiotic Soil Crusts in Semiarid Rangelands. Pages 179-85 in Stephen B. Monsen and Stanley G. Kitchen, editors. Proceedings: Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. USDA Forest Service. Intermountain Research Station Gen.Tech.Report, INT-GTR-313 (September 1994).
94B6 Burkett, Douglas W. and Bruce C. Thompson, "Wildlife Association with Human-Altered Water Sources in Semiarid Vegetation Communities", Conservation Biology, 8(3) (1994) pp. 682-690.
94D1 "Taking From The Taxpayer: Public Subsidies for Natural Resource Development", Democratic Staff Report, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Natural Resources, US House of Rep., 103rd Congress 2nd Session, 8/94, Washington DC (http://www.house.gov/resources/105cong/democrat/subsidy.htm).
94E1 Bahman Eghball, J. F. Power, "Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Management", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49(2) (1994) pp. 113-122.
94E2 L. E. Eddleman, R. F. Miller, P. M. Miller, P. L. Dysart, "Western Juniper Woodlands of the Pacific Northwest: Science Assessment", Prepared for I.C.B.E.M.P. (1994).
94E3 W. Elmore, B. K auffman, "Riparian and watershed systems: degradation and restoration", pp. 212-231 in M. Vavra, W. A. Laycock, and R.D. Pieper (editors), Ecological implications of livestock herbivory in the West, Society for Range Management, Denver CO (1994).
94F1 C. H. Flather, L. A. Joyce, C. A. Bloomgarden, "Species Endangerment Patterns in the U.S.", Gen. Tech. Report RM-241, U.S. Forest Service, Ft. Collins CO (1994).
94F2 Fleischner, Thomas L., "Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America," Conservation Biology, 8(3) (September 1994) pp. 629-644.
94H1 John Horning, "The Forgotten Rangelands: A Call for Reform of US USFS Grazing Policy," National Wildlife Federation, Washington DC 2/1994.
94H2 Harris, W. G., H. D. Wang, K. R. Reddy, "Dairy Manure Influence on Soil and Sediment Composition: Implications for Phosphorous Retention", Journal of Environmental Quality, 23 (1994) pp. 1071-1081.
94I1 L. L. Irwin, J. G. Cook, R. A. Riggs, J. M. Skovlin, "Effects of Long-term Grazing by big Game and Livestock in the Blue Mountains Forest Eosystem", USDA USFS PNW-GTR-325 (1994)?
94K1 J. Kaltenecker, M. Wicklow-Howard, "Microbiotic soil crusts in Sagebrush Habitats of Southern Idaho". Prepared for Eastside Ecosystem Management Project, Boise State University, Boise ID (1994).
94M1 R. F. Miller, P.E. Wigand, "Holocene Changes in Semi-arid Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands", Bioscience, 44 (1994) pp. 465-474.
94M2 Miller, Brian, Geraldo Ceballos and Richard Reading, "The Prairie Dog and Biotic Diversity", Conservation Biology, 8(3) (September 1994) pp. 677-681.
94M3 Milton, S. J. and M. T. Hoffman, "The application of state-and-transition models to rangeland research and management in arid succulent and semi-arid grassy Karoo, South Africa," African Journal of Range and Forage Science 11: (1994) pp. 18-26.
94N1 Nathaniel C. Nash, "Winds of Change Leave Patagonia Little to Tend", New York Times (3/21/94).
94N2 Noss, Reed F. and Allen Y. Cooperrider, Saving Nature's Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity, Washington DC: Island Press, 416 pp. (1994).
94O1 Randal O'Toole, editor, "Reforming the Western Range", Different Drummer, Spring 1994 1(2) 62 pp.
94P1 Sandra Postel, "Carrying Capacity: Earth's Bottom Line" in L. Starke, editor, State of the World 1994, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1994) pp. 3-21.
94P2 Pellant, M, and C. Hall, "Distribution of Two Exotic Grasses on Intermountain Rangelands: Status in 1992. Pages 109-112 in S. B. Monsen and S. G. Kitchen, editors, Proceedings - Ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands, General Technical Report INT-GTR-313. US Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden UT (1994).
94S1 R. L. Sheley, "Identification, Distribution, Impacts, Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds", Prepared for Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (1994).
94U1 (Unknown) "Ranchers With Grazing Permits Earn More, Report Says," Albuquerque Journal (7/26/94).
94U2 U.S. Department of the Interior, Rangeland Reform '94, Draft Environmental Impact Statement", BLM, Washington DC (1994).
94U3 U.S. Congress, Committee on Natural Resources, Sub-committee on Oversight and Investigations, "Taking from the Taxpayer: Public Subsidies for Natural Resource Development" (1994).
94W1 J.D. Williams, "Microbiotic Crusts: a Review," Prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (1994).
94Y1 J. A. Young, "Changes in Plant Communities in the Great Basin induced by Domestic Livestock Grazing. Ch.6 in K. T. Harper, L. L. St. Clair, K. H. Thome, and W. M. Hess, Natural history of the Colorado plateau and Great Basin, University Press of Colorado. Niwot, 294 pp. (1994).

[G] - 1995 - 1997 -

95B1 J. Belnap, "Surface Disturbances: Their Role in Accelerating Desertification", Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 37 (1995) pp. 39-57.
95B2 Bock, Jane H. and Carl E. Bock, "The Challenges of Grassland Conservation", pp. 199-222 in Anthony Joern and Kathleen H. Keeler, editors. The Changing Prairie: North American Grasslands. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1995).
95B3 Beeskow A. M., Elissalde N. O. and C. M. Rostagno. "Ecosystem changes associated with grazing intensity on the Punta Ninfas rangelands of Patagonia, Argentina," Journal of Range Management 48: (November 1995) pp. 517-522.
95C1 Cooperrider, Allen Y., David S. Wilcove, et al, "Defending the Desert: Conserving Biodiversity on BLM Lands in the Southwest", Environmental Defense Fund, 148 pp. (1995).
95D1 Derek Denniston, "Sustaining Mountain People and Environments" in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1995, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1995) pp. 38-57.
95D2 Gretchen C. Daily, "Restoring Value to the World's Degraded Lands", Science, 269 (1995) pp. 350-354.
95G1 Richard H. Grove, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860, Cambridge University Press (1995) 540 pp. (See Nature 376 (1995) p. 652).
95G2 Government of Mongolia, "National Environmental Action Plan: Towards Mongolia's Environmentally Sound Sustainable Development" (1995).
95H1 Hess Jr., Karl and Jerry L. Holechek. "Beyond the Grazing Fee: An Agenda For Rangeland Reform", Policy Analysis #234. Cato Inst., Washington DC (7/13/95).
95H2 Hess Jr., Karl and Johanna H. Wald, "Grazing Reform: Here's the Answer", High Country News, 27(18) (10/2/95).
95H3 Holechek, Jerry L., "The Real Problem Is the Federal Government", Western Beef Producer (2/2/95).
95P1 David Pimentel, C. Harvey et al, "Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits", Science, 267 (1995) pp. 1117-1123.
95T1 S. W. Trimble, A. C. Memdel, "The Cow as a Geomorphic Agent: A Critical Review", Geomorphology 13 (1995) pp. 233-53.
95W1 Elena Wilken, "Assault of the Earth", WorldWatch, 8(2) (1995) pp. 20-27.
- - - - -

96B1 A. Joy Belsky, D. M. Blumenthal, "Effects of livestock grazing on Stand Dynamics and Soils in Upland Forests of the Interior West", Conservation Biology, 11 (1996) pp. 315-327.
96B2 A. Joy Belsky, "Viewpoint: Western Juniper Expansion: Is it a Threat to Arid Northwestern Ecosystems?", Journal of Range Management, 49(1) (1996) pp. 53-95.
96B3 A. Joy Belsky, "Wild and prescribed fir in forests of the Intermountain West", Wild Earth, Fall (1996) pp. 44-45.
96D1 David W. Davenport et al, "Soil Morphology of Canopy and Intercanopy Sites in a Pinon-Juniper Woodland", Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60 (1996) pp. 1881-1887.
96F1 FAO, "World livestock production systems: current status, issues and trends." FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 127. Rome (1996).
96G1 B. O. Gomboev, "The Structure and Process of Land Use in Inner Asia", pp.12-57 in Culture and Environment in Inner Asia, Vol.1, C. Humphrey and D. Sneath, editors, The White Horse Press, Cambridge UK (1996).
96L1 A. R. Ladyman, E. Muldavin, "Terrestrial Cryptogams of pinyon-juniper Woodlands in the Southwestern US: A Review", USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Range and Experiment Station General Technical Report RM-GTR-280 (1996).
96M1 Alain Marcoux, "Linkages between Population, Natural Resources and Environment in China, Philippines, Indonesia and Viet Nam", Population and Environment, Population Programme Service, (3/31/96).
96M1 Alain Marcoux, "Population Change-Natural Resources-Environmental Linkages in the Arab State Region", FAO Population Program Service (April 1996) (Contact Jacques du Guerny at jacques.duguerny@fao.org)
96M2 Matthews, K. R., "Habitat Selection and Movement Patterns of California Golden Trout in Degraded and Recovering Stream Sections in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. North American Journal Fish. Management, 16 (1996) pp. 579-590.
96O1 Ohmart, Robert D., "Historical and Present Impacts of Livestock Grazing on Fish and Wildlife Resources in Western Riparian Habitats", Chapter 16 (pp. 245-279) in Paul R. Krausman, editor Rangeland Wildlife, Denver CO: Society for Range Managment (1996).
96O2 Oppenheimer, Tod, "The Rancher Subsidy", The Atlantic Monthly, 277(1): (1996) (Jan.) pp. 26-38.
96P1 T. M. Powers, Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies, Island Press, Washington DC 303 pp. (1996).
96Q1 T. M. Quigley, K. M. Lee, S. J. Arbelbide, "Evaluation of the EIS alternatives by the Science Integration Team", Vol.I, USDA USFS PNW-GTR-406 (1997).
96R1 J. M. Randall, "Weed Control for the Preservation of Biological Diversity", Weed Technology 10 (1996) pp. 370-383.
96S1 Status of the Interior Columbia Basin, Status of the Interior Columbia Basin, Summary of Scientific Findings. USDA USFS, PNW-GTR 385 (1996).
96S2 D. Sarr, R. A. Knapp, J. Owens, et al, "Ecosystem Recovery from Livestock Grazing in the southwestern Sierra Nevada", Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula MT (1996).
96S3 Scherr, S., Yadav, S. "Land degradation in the developing world: implications for food, agriculture and the environment to 2020". Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper No. 14. Washington, DC, IFPRI (1996).
96Y1 Yoakum, J. D., B. W. O'Gara and V. W. Howard, Jr., "Pronghorn on Western Rangelands", Chapter 13 (pp.211-226) in Paul R. Krausman, editor. Rangeland Wildlife, Denver CO: Society for Range Management. (1996).

97B1 Lester R. Brown, Michael Renner, Christopher Flavin, Vital Signs 1997: The Environmental Trends that are Shaping our Future, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1997).
97B2 A. Joy Belsky, Dana M. Blumenthal, "Effects of Livestock Grazing on Stand Dynamics and Soils in Upland Forests of the Interior West", Conservation Biology, 11(2) (1997) pp. 315-327.
97B3 Joy Belsky (Oregon Natural Desert Association), "None of the Alternatives in the ICBEMP Draft Environmental Impact Statement will Protect or Restore Rangelands of the Interior Columbia Basin", Comments on the rangeland section of the draft environmental Impact statement for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (12/14/97).
97B4 Baskin, Yvonne, The Work of Nature: How the Diversity of Life Sustains Us, Washington DC: Island Press (1997) 288 pp.
97C1 Pierre Crosson, "Will Erosion Threaten Agricultural Productivity?", Environment 39(8) (1997) pp. 4-9 and 29-31.
97D1 C. De Haan et al, "Livestock in the Environment: Finding a Balance", European Commission Directorate General for Development, Development Policy, Sustainable Development and Natural Resources (1973).
97D2 Dregne, H. E., "Land degradation control in the drylands: Establishing priorities." In: Desert Conservation and Development. (Editors: Barakat, H. N.; Hegazy, A.K.) Metropole, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 73-88.
97E1 Eswaran, H. and P. Reich, "Impacts of land degradation in the Mediterranean region" in Land Degradation, 2, pp. 23-24.
97H1 W. J. Hann, J. L. Jones, M. G. Karl et al, "Landscape dynamics of the Basin", Chapter 3 in Assessment of Ecosystem Components in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, Vol.II. USDA USFS, PNW-GTR-405 (1997).
97H2 R. W. Haynes, A. L. Horne, "Economic assessment of the Basin", Vol. IV in T. M. Quigley, S. J. Arbelbide (Editors) An Assessment of the Ecosystem Components in the Interior Columbia Basin, USDA USFS, PNW-GTR-405 (1997).
97M1 Angus MacDonald, "Subsidized Sheep Blamed for Erosion", The Shetland News (2/21/1997).
97M2 Gifford Miller, at a late 1997 meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.
97M3 N. Middleton and D. Thomas, "World Atlas of Desertification: Second Edition", UNEP, London (1997).
97N1 Nelson, Robert H., "How to Reform Grazing Policy: Creating Forage Rights on Federal Rangelands", Fordham Environmental Law Journal, 8(3) (1997) pp. 645-690.
97O1 I. M. Ortega, S. Soltero-Gardea, F. C. Bryant, D. L. Drawe, "Evaluating Grazing Stregies for Cattle: Deer Forage Dynamics", Journal of Range Management. 50 (1997) pp. 615-621.
97P1 Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Rajul Pandya-Lorch, Mark W, Rosegrant, "The World Food Situation: Recent Developments, Emerging Issues, and Long-Term Prospects", International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC (1997) 36 pp.
97P2 Predator Project, "Wildlife Services? A Presentation and Analysis of the USDA Wildlife Services Program's Expenditures and Kill Figures for Fiscal Year 1996" (1997) 8 pp.
97R1 Michael Renner, "Chiapas: An Uprising Born of Despair", World Watch, (January/ February 1997) pp. 12-24.

97S1 Schiffman, P. M., "Animal-Mediated Dispersal and Disturbance: Driving Forces Behind Alien Plant Naturalization. pp. 87-94 in J. O. Luken and J. W. Thieret, editors Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. Springer-Verlag, NY (1997).
Sinha, S. 1997. Global change scenario: current and future, with reference to land cover changes and sustainable agriculture in the South and South East Asian context. In V. Ravinchandran, editor Regional land cover changes and sustainable agriculture in South Asia. Proceedings of the COSTED/EU International Workshop on Regional Land Cover Changes, Sustainable Agriculture and their Interactions with Global Change, Chiang Mai, Thailand (December 1996).
97T1 C. A. Taylor,Jr., M. H. Ralphs, M. M. Kothmann, "Technical note: Vegetation Response to Increasing Stocking Rates Under Rotational Stocking:, Journal of Range Management., 50 (1997) pp. 439-442.
97U1 UNEP, Global environment outlook. UNEP and Oxford University Press (1997).
97W1 Mary Wicoff, "Many Areas of Navajo Nation Grazed past Point of no Return" from an Internet search on "Overgrazing" 6/20/97. (Date of document not given.).

[H] - 1998 - 2000 -

98B1 A. J. Belsky, A. Matzke, S. Uselman, "Survey of Livestock Influences on Stream and Riparian Ecosystems in the Western US. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation (1998).
98B2 Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics 1998. http://www.blm.gov/natacq/pls98/98PL2-2.PDF. (1998).
98D1 J. F. Dormaar, W. D. Willms, "Effect of 44 Years of Grazing on Fescue Grassland Soils", Journal of Range Management, 51 (1998) pp. 122-126.
98D2 De Haan, C., Steinfeld, H. and Blackburn, H., Livestock and the environment: finding a balance. CEC/FAO/WB (1998).
98F1 Fleischauer, E., Bayer, W. and Lossau, A., Assessing and monitoring environmental impact and sustainability. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Livestock and the Environment (June 1997) Wageningen. IAC for FAO and the World Bank (1998).
98H1 Don Hinrichsen (Contributing Editor), "Feeding a Future World", People and the Planet, 7(1) (1998) (No specific references) http://www.oneworld.org/patp/index.html.
98H2 Brian Halweil, "US Leads World Meat Stampede", Worldwatch Press Briefing on the Global Trends in Meat Consumption http://www.worldwatch.org.
98J1 Fan Jiangwen., Grassland resources in southern China: the potential, problems and exploitation strategies. In Liu Jian and Lu Qi, editors, Grassland management in China. Beijing, China Environmental Science Press (1998).
98M1 James C. McKinley Jr., "It's Kenya's Farmers vs. Wildlife, and the Animals Are Losing" New York Times (8/2/98).
98O1 L. R. Oldeman, "Soil Degradation: A Threat to Food Security", ISRIC, Wageningen (1998).
98R1 David Malin Roodman, The Natural Wealth of Nations, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (1998).
98U1 (Unknown), Frontline, Forest Guardian (8/25/98) (See GREENLines Issue 700 (8/27/98) from GREEN (GrassRoots Environmental Effectiveness Network) Defenders of Wildlife (rfeather@defenders.org).
98W1 Wilcove, David S., David Rothstein, Jason Dubow, Ali Phillips and Elizabeth Losos. "Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the US", BioScience, 48(8) (8/98) pp. 607-615.

99A1 Dennis T. Avery, "Feeding Our Faces: Can Private Philanthropy save the Planet - Again?" http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/1.9/avery.html (1/20/99).
99B1 A. J. Belsky, A. Matzke, S. Uselman, "Survey of Livestock Influences on Stream and Riparian Ecosystems in the Western US", Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54 (1999) pp. 419-431.
99B2 Bob Burgdorfer, "Fewer US cattle, higher prices forecast for 2000" (12/2/99) (Reuters).
99B3 Michael Browner, Ph.D. Warren Leon, Ph.D. Union of Concerned Scientists, "The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices," (1999).
99D1 Donahue, Debra L., "The Western Range Revisited: Removing Livestock From Public Lands to Conserve Native Biodiversity", Norman OK, University of Oklahoma Press, 252 pp. (1999).
99D2 C. Delgado et al, "Livestock to 2020: The New Revolution", 2020 Vision Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper No.28, IFPRI, Washington DC (1999), pp. 9-10.
99E1 R. D. Evans, J. Belnap, "Long-Term Consequences of Disturbances on Nitrogen Dynamics in an Arid Ecosystem", Ecology, 80(1) (1999) pp. 150-160.
99F1 Fernanandez-Gimenez M.A. and B. Allen-Diaz, "Testing a non-equilibrium model of rangeland vegetation dynamics in Mongolia," Journal of Applied Ecology 36: (1999) pp. 871-885.
99G1 J. L. Gelbard, A. J. Belsky, "Livestock Grazing Facilitates Invasions by Non-indigenous Plants into Arid and Semi-arid Communities of the American West", Oregon Natural Desert Association, 732 SW 3rd Ave., Suite 407, Portland OR 97204 (Submitted to Conservation Biology, 12/99).
99G2 J. L. Gelbard, "Multiple Scale Causes of Exotic Plant Invasions in the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin, USA", Master's Project, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham NC (1999).
99H1 C. Humphrey and D. Sneath, The End of Nomadism: Society, State and the Environment in Inner Asia, Duke University Press, Durham NC (1999).
99L1 J. S. Levine et al, "Wildlands Fire and the Environment: A Global Synthesis", UNEP/DEIAEW/TR.99-1, UNEP, Nairobi (1999).
99L2 LID, "Livestock in poverty-focused development", Crewkerne, Somerset, UK, Livestock in Development (1999).
99M1 E. Matthews and A. Hammond, "Critical Consumption Trends and Implications: Degrading the Earth's Ecosystems", World Resources Institute, Washington DC (1999).
99N1 R. Neupert, "Population, Nomadic Pastoralism and the Environment in the Mongolian Plateau", Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 20(5) (1999) pp. 413-41.
99P1 Thomas Michael Power, "The Economic Importance of Livestock Grazing on Federal Lands", (Draft of a chapter written for the Foundation for Deep Ecology publication project on Livestock Grazing on Public Lands) (1999)(June) http://www.fguardians.org/tmpower.htm (7/31/99).
99R1 Paul Rogers and Jennifer LaFleur, "The Giveaway of the West: A Mercury News Special Report," Cash Cows: Tax dollars still support a Wild West holdover that enriches big Ranchers and degrades the land, San Jose Mercury News (11/7/99).
99R2 David Malin Roodman, "Building a Sustainable Society", in Linda Starke, editor, State of the World 1999, W. W. Morton Co., New York (1999) pp. 169-188.
99S1 J. Sebastian Sinisi, "Sheep ranchers just hang on", Denver Post (12/27/99).
99W1 George Wuerthner, "Livestock Industry Myths", US Forest Service Message Forum, (July 1999).
99W2 Patricia Wolff, The Taxpayer's Guide to Subsidized Ranching in the Southwest, Center for Biological Diversity and New West Research (September 1999) 23 pp.

00B1 Portions of a letter from the late Joy Belsky, Ph.D., Staff Ecologist, Oregon Natural Desert Association 732 SW 3rd Avenue, Suite 407 Portland, OR 97204 503/228-9720 www.onda.org to Sierra Club Board of Directors (9/19/00).
00E1 Eric Eckholm, "Chinese Farmers See a New Desert Erode their Way of Life", New York Times (7/30/00).

00G1 Gelbard, Jonathan L. and A. Joy Belsky, "Livestock Grazing: A Major Cause of Non-indigenous Plant Invasions in the American West", Submitted to Ecological Applications (2000).
00H1 Jerry L. Holchek, Hilton Gomes, Francisco Molinar, Dee Gault, Raul Valdez, "Short-Duration Grazing: The Facts in 1999", Rangelands 22(1) (February, 2000) pp. 18-22.
00H2 Karl Hess, Jr. and Jerry Holechek, Policy Roots of Land Degradation in the Arid Regions of the United States: An Overview: (August of 2000)
00W1 World Resources Institute, World Resources 2000-2001, World Resources Institute, 10 G St. NE, Washington DC 20002  (2000) 389 pp.
00W2 R. White et al, "Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems Technical Report [PAGE], World Resources Institute (2000).

[I] - 2001 - 2003 -

01B1 Alan Barkema et al., "The new US meat industry," Economic Review, Second Quarter (2001).
In 2000, 99% of the growth in beef demand came from outside of the US.
01B2 Lester R. Brown, "Dust Bowl Threatening China's Future", Earth Policy Institute (5/23/01) www.earth-policy.org Earth Policy Alerts may be reproduced free of charge with due acknowledgement given to Lester Brown and Earth Policy Institute. To help us monitor this service, mail or email a copy of the publication (or link) in which the reprint appears to Reah Janise Kauffman, Earth Policy Institute, 1350 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 403, Washington, DC 20036, 202.496.9290. rjkauffman@earth-policy.org Previous Alerts available at: http://www.earth-policy.org.
01B3 Lester R. Brown, Eco-Economy, W. W. Norton and Co., New York (2001) p. 61
01E1 Environmental News Network staff, "Conservationists critical of federal ranching subsidies" (1/19/01).
01E2 European Commission, Prospects for agricultural markets, 2001-2008. Brussels, EU Commission, Directorate General for Agriculture (2001).
01F1 Barney Foran, Franzi Poldy, "Future Dilemmas", CSIRO Resource Futures Working Paper 02/2001, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, GPO Box 284, CANBERRA ACT 2601 available online at www.cse.csiro.au/futuredilemmas and the Australian Resource Atlas, http://audit.ea.gov.au/anra/agriculture/docs/national/Agriculture_Landscape.html.
01G1 Dan Gallagher, "Once a Dominant Business in the West, the Sheep Industry Declines", Associated Press (12/3/01).
01J1 Johnson, E. A., K. Miyanishi, and S. R. J. Bridges. "Wildfire regime in the boreal forest and the idea of suppression and fuel buildup", Conservation Biology 15(6) (2001) pp. 1554-1557.
01K1 J. E. Keeley and C. J. Fotheringham, "History and management of crown-fire ecosystems: a summary and response. Conservation Biology 15(6) (2001) pp. 1561-1567.
01M1 M. Mortimore, and W. Adams, "Farmer adaptation, change and 'crisis' in the Sahel", Global Environmental Change, 11 (2001) pp. 49-57.
01O1 Sarah Osterhoudt, "A Prairie Primer", Onearth, (fall 2001) p. 27.

01U1 (Unknown), Meat, Dairy Demand in Developing Countries to Double in 20 Years," BusinessWorld (Philippines) (4/30/01).
01U2 (Unknown) "Grapes of Wrath in Inner Mongolia", report from US Embassy in Beijing (May 2001).
01W1 Pat Wolff <WolffNM@yahoo.com> 8/28/01 "World Farm Animals Day 2001", Contact Laurelee Blanchard, 808-575-7694 (report compiled and published yearly by FARM - a public interest organization dedicated to exposing animal abuse and other impacts of today's animal agriculture on environmental quality, food resources, and public health. P. O. Box 30654, Bethesda MD 20824 www.farmusa.org 301-530-1737.

02C1 Commonwealth Intergovernmental Working Group, "National Report by Australia on measures taken to support implementation of the UN convention to combat desertification", Commonwealth Intergovernmental Working Group for the UNCCD, (April 2002).
02E1 Earth Policy Institute, "World's Rangelands Deteriorating Under Mounting Pressure", Earth Policy Institute (2/5/02).
02G1 Bradely Genter and John A. Tanaka, "Profile of Public Lands Ranchers: Grazing the Literature", Journal of Range Management 55(1) (January 2002) pp. 2-11.
02M1 Bill Marsh (New York Times), "A world remade by human hands", Pittsburgh Post Gazette (8/25/02).
02M2 Karyn Moskowitz, Chuck Romaniello, et al, "Study finds full Cost of Federal Grazing Program may Exceed $500 Million", Press Advisory, Center for Biological Diversity, PO Box 710 Tucson AZ 85702 mtaylor@biologicaldiversity.org 520-623-5252 x307 http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/10/24/02, (report available in hard copy upon request or online).
02M3 Will Moir, "Ponderosa Pine Fire Ecology", USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Flagstaff, AZ. Northern Arizona University web page on ponderosa fire ecology, http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/Biota/ponderosafire.htm in Grahame, John D. and Thomas D. Sisk, editors. (2002). Canyons, cultures and environmental change: An introduction to the land-use history of the Colorado Plateau. [8/30/03://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/.
02M4 Geoffrey McNicoll, "Managing population-environment systems: problems of institutional design," in Wolfgang Lutz, Alexia Prskawetz, and Warren C. Sanderson (editors) "Population and Environment: Methods of Analysis. Supplement to Population and Development Review." New York: Population Council (2002).

02P1 PBS, "Modern Meat: A PBS Frontline Documentary" (April 18, 2002) 60 minutes.
02R1 Keith Raether, "Campaign to buy ranchers' grazing permits is the way to save public range", Headwaters News (4/24/02).
02R2 Paul Rogers, progers@sjmercury.com, "Report: Grazing is Costing Taxpayers" Mercury News (10/24/02).
02U1 The Big Dry: Cows plus drought equals misery for Rivers in the West (http://www.times.org)
Cascadia Times News Release (9/16/02) Paul Koberstein, editor, Casacdia@spiritone.com www.times.org Cascadia Times is a quarterly environmental journal published in Portland, OR.

03A1 Nikos Alexandratos, "Prospects for Aggregate Agriculture and major Commodity Groups", Chapter 3, pp. 57-123 in Jelle Bruinsma, editor, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030, UNFAO (2003) Earthscan Publications, London, 432 pages.
03A2 Nikos Alexandratos, "Introduction and Overview", pp. 1-28 in Jelle Bruinsma, editor, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030, UNFAO (2003) Earthscan Publications, London, 432 pages.
Lester R. Brown, "China Losing War with Advancing Deserts", http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/Update26.htm (Checked 8/7/03), Earth Policy Institute News Release of 8/5/03.
03C1 Alexey Chereckaev, "Livestock", http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/guide.htm 1/28/03 (a massive compilation of Russian lands data) (2003).
03E1 Ian Elliott, "Study says two-thirds of meat production to come from developing world", Feedstuffs, 75(15) (April 14, 2003).
03L1 Geoffrey Lean, 'Ecological Meltdown': Huge Dust Cloud Threatens Asia", Independent/UK (1/26/03) (c) 2003 Independent Digital (UK) Ltd.
03N1 David Norse, "Agriculture and the Environment: Changing Pressures, Solutions and Trade-offs", Chapter 12, pp. 331-356 in Jelle Bruinsma, editor, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030, UNFAO (2003) Earthscan Publications, London, 432 pages.
03S1 Ivan Savchenko, "Pastures and Rangeland," http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/guide.htm (1/28/03) (a huge compilation of Russian lands data) (See Romanenko G. A., A. I. Tyutyunnikov, V. G. Pozdnyakov, and A. A. Shutjkov. (1999). Agricultural-Industrial Complex of Russia. State, Place in Agro-Industrial Complex of the World. Russian Academy of Agricultural Science, Moscow, 541 pp. [In Russian]).
03S2 Henning Steinfeld, Joachim Otte, "Livestock Production", Chapter 5, pp. 158-176 in Jelle Bruinsma, editor, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030, UNFAO (2003) Earthscan Publications, London, 432 pages.
03Z1 Igor Zonn, Grigori Kapoustin, "Desertification in Russia", http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/guide.htm (1/28/03) (a large compilation of Russian lands data). 

[J] - 2004-2006 -

04B1 Lester R. Brown, "Troubling New Flows of Environmental Refugees", Earth Policy Institute (1/28/04).
04D1 Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Viking (2004) 576 pp.
04H1 Chris Hawley (Associated Press) "U.N. to combat growing deserts", Pittsburgh Post Gazette (6/16/04).
04U1 (Unknown) "Africa: 4x4s Replace the Desert Camel and Whip Up a Worldwide Dust Storm", Guardian (London) (8/20/04).

04W1 Simon Worrall, "Land of the Living Wind", National Geographic (January 2004).

06B1 Lester R. Brown, "Countries Losing War with Advancing Deserts," from Chapter 5 of "Natural Systems Under Stress," in Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble, New York: W. W. Norton and Company (2006). (su3)
06B2 Lester R. Brown, "Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization," http://www.earthpolicy.org/Updates/2006/Update61.htm (11/15/06). Lester R. Brown is President of the Earth Policy Institute and author of Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. For more in-depth information see Chapters 4-6 in Plan B 2.0, at www.earthpolicy.org/Books/PB2/Contents.htm
06D1 Gwynne Dyer, "How Long Can the World Feed Itself?" Energy Bulletin (10/28/06).
06L1 Tim Large, "Advancing deserts fuel African conflict", Reuters AlertNet (1/23/06).
06M1 Rosamund McDougall, "Desertification and migration: An Optimum Population Trust Briefing," Optimum Population Trust (November 2006).
Jehangir S. Pocha, "China's dangerous dustbowl," The Boston Globe (9/18/06).
06U1 "Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars," United Nations report (11/29/06).

[K] - 2007-2009 -

07C1 Clifford Coonan, "The Gathering Sandstorm: Encroaching Desert, Missing Water," The Independent (11/9/07).
Mara Hvistendahl, "Revitalizing China's Dust Bowl," WorldChanging (10/08/07).
07M1 Milline J. Mbonile, "Population, Migration, and Water Conflicts in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania," in Report from Africa: Population, Health, Environment, and Conflict, ECSP Report Edition 12 (2007) pp. 20-28 of a 50-page document.
07R1 Marc Ravalomanana, "Madagascar Naturellement: Birth Control is My Environmental Priority," in Report from Africa: Population, Health, Environment, and Conflict, ECSP Report, Edition 12 (2007) pp. 6-7 of a 50-page document. 
07S1 Bruce Sundquist, "Grazing Land Degradation: A Global Perspective," Edition 6, (July 2007).
07S2 Bruce Sundquist, "Topsoil Loss - Causes, Effects and Implications: A Global Perspective," Edition 7 (July 2007).
07U1 UNEP, "Synthesis Report: Sudan Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment" (June 2007) (su3) http://topics.developmentgateway.org/foodsecurity/rc/ItemDetail.do?itemid-1113738 (visited 9/13/07) 16 pages (A much larger report is also available.)

08A1 Akinboade, Oludele, (University of South Africa, Economics Department) "Economic and Financial Costs of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Southern Africa: A Review," submitted to Land Degradation and Development, John Wiley, on 5/14/08 and approved by reviewer. 
P.A. Martin, G. Eshel, "The Greenhouse Gas- and Land-Demand Consequences of the US Animal-based Food Consumption," American Geophysical Union – 2008 Fall Meeting. 
08R1 Shane Romig, "Are Argentina’s Cows Happy Eating Grain?" Wall Street Journal (12/01/08) p. C6. 

09D1 Alister Doyle, ""Alien" pests wreak economic damage-U.N." Reuters Altertnet (5/22/09). 

[L] - 2010-2012 -

10B1 Lester R. Brown, "Civilization's Foundation Eroding" Earth Policy Release, Book Byte (9/28/10).  www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/book_bytes/2010/pb4ch02_ss2 (10B2) Adapted from Chapter 2, "Population Pressure: Land and Water," in Lester R. Brown, Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), available on-line at www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/books/pb4 
10M1 Kris Maher, "The Vexing Bugs in the Global Trade System," Wall Street Journal (1/15/10) p. A15.

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