Directory of Manila Galleon Voyages,

1565 through 1815

Bruce Cruikshank

 

Introduction, August 2006 (see below, please)

1565 to 1815 Tabular Overview of Galleons Coming and Going, (see below, please)

Terminology and Frequently Used Sources (see below, please)

Bibliography (see below, please)

Galleon Miscellany (see below, please)

Manila Galleon Voyages, by Year, 1565-1815

16th century, beginning 1565, e-mail me, please, or see http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-yenYfS08eqgwDsnprU8OffaUdTg_

17th century, e-mail me, please, or see http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-yenYfS08eqgwDsnprU8OffaUdTg_

18th century, e-mail me, please, or see http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-yenYfS08eqgwDsnprU8OffaUdTg_

19th century, through 1815, e-mail me, please, or see http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-yenYfS08eqgwDsnprU8OffaUdTg_

 

 

 

Introduction, August 2006

Bruce Cruikshank

ManilaGalleon@yahoo.com

 

This is an updated list revised from the first one I posted in September 2003 at http://www.mrcstudios.com/bruce/. The help of Mr. Matt Cruikshank was central to that effort. We have now abandoned the earlier list both because of technical difficulties as well as the fact that the material there was increasingly out of date and unsatisfactory.

This continues to be a preliminary listing of the ships that sailed between Manila/Cavite and Acapulco from 1565 to 1815. Working alone this time and due to my inexperience with Web pages, the listings are more complete but less easily used than in the earlier list. All but the listings for a particular year are here. To find the material presented here one must scroll down or search for the categories listed above. I apologize for the inconvenience and cumbersome nature of the format. Over time it is possible that this deficiency will be corrected. Since I did want to make the revised material available as soon as possible, I went ahead as best I could, however unsatisfactory the format.

For a specific year or years, if the Tabular Overviews listed below are not sufficient, please go to a separate site, a blog:

http://blog.360.yahoo.com/blog-yenYfS08eqgwDsnprU8OffaUdTg_

I am hopeful that eventually I will be able to get all the data included in the web site, but for now please work between these two sites. If you need a quick reference to the URLs, please see http://ManilaGalleon.info where both URLs are listed.

I have endeavored to make the listing of dates and names and fates as complete as possible. Due to the scanty, and sometimes ambiguous or contradictory information readily available—characteristics that prompted the project—there may be errors or omissions in the listing to date. The purpose is to provide an easily accessed site for scholars in Latin American, Pacific, and Asian studies to consult and correct the data presented. As you find errors, omissions, and the unresolved contradictions in the listings, please e-mail me at ManilaGalleon@yahoo.com and explain both the problem and provide the citation of the source buttressing your correction. Unless specifically directed, I will credit you for any changes adopted in subsequent ‘editions’ that came from your input; an archival or published source is of great value for this list, so please include it if you have one and it is apposite.

One can get an overview of the listings over the years by looking at the “1565 to 1815 tabular overview of galleons coming and going.” The “Terminology and Frequently Used Sources” gives you a preview of the more commonly used sources, while a fuller, albeit selected, list of sources is in the “Bibliography.” For specific years, see the listings by date in the blog referenced above.

Bruce

 

Overview of Galleons to/from Philippines, 1565-1815

Data in brackets indicates supposition

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

1565

27 April, Cebu

San Pedro or San Pablo, 1 June 1565

3 October 1565

1566

October, Cebu,

San Gerónimo

May 1566,

San Gerónimo

1567

15 October, Cebu,

San Gerónimo

“late July” 1567, San Juan or San Juanillo

[one arrived]

“early in 1567,” San Gerónimo

1568

2 galleons, Cebu

San Pablo [San Pedro], lost en route

[none]

[2 ships sent]

1569

11 June, Cebu

San Lucas

San Juan

1570

3 June, Cebu.

Three galleons in 1570.

[3 ships sent]

1571

17 July

[at least one sent]

1572

Santiago; San Juan; Espiritu Santo

13 August, Santiago and San Juan dispatched but both turned back

[none]

[3 ships sent]

1573

at least one

1 July, [Santiago]; San Juan; [Espiritu Santo].

San Juan

returned to port

15 and 24 August, 2 ships

1574

6 July, one of 2

San Juan,

Espiritu Santo

[two sent]

1575

24 or 25 August; and

11 September

[the Espiritu Santo]

6 April, [2 ships]; 18 November, Espiritu Santo

1576

Santiago, San Felipe

lost en route

Espiritu Santo

1577

?24 June; 2 August

San Juan, ca. 8 June

[at least one sent,

?15 March]

1578

2 July

San Juanillo,

but lost at sea

[at least one sent]

1579

Trinidad

[2 November 1579]

1580

April

one sent but put back to port

[at least one sent]

1581

March;

July, San Martín

29 March,

San Martín

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

 

 

1582

[24 May] 1582

[at least one sent, 10 March 1582]]

1583

[the Santa Maria de Jesus; and the San Martin]

1584

 

9 March;

16 and 26 May; June

 

July 24 or July 29, from Macao, the San Juan Bautista]

29 February 1584, the Santa Maria de Jesus; 15 December 1584, the San Martin; the San Juan Bautista

 

[at least one sent]

1585

September; and the

San Juan, June 1585.

The San Martin as well as the San Juan, 25 March 1585

1586

 

“May or June”

28 June, San Martín

July 1587, from Macao, the [Nuestra Señora de Esperanza]

 

 

 

[at least one sent]

1587

[perhaps two arrived]

Santa Ana, almost taken by Cavendish; and, from Macao, 12 July 1587 the Nuestra Señora de Esperanza

the Nuestra Señora de Esperanza, 22 November 1587, from Macao

San Martín; and 6 April ship

1588

?one ship arrived

June, Santiago

7 January,

Santa Ana

?one ship departed

1589

 

1590

1st galleon, 31 May or 1 June; 2nd ship, 20 June

Santiago, &

the San Ildefonso

December 1590,

the Santiago

1 March, 2 ships, one the Santiago

1591

21 June 1591, the Santiago

“end of June,” 2 ships, one = San Felipe

19 January 1591,

the San Ildefonso

the Santiago and the San Ildefonso (lost en route)

1592

3 or 31 May

[at least one sent]

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1593

perhaps 25 September 1593, the Santiago;

the San Felipe

San Felipe and San Francisco; both put back to port

8 February 1593, the San Felipe; and 4 April 1593, the Santiago

1594

“April or May”; 15 June 1594, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario [and the San Pedro?]

June 1594, the

San Felipe and the

San Francisco

November, the Santiago; 22 November 1594, the San Felipe

21 March 1594, the Ntra. Señora del Rosario [and the San Pedro?]

1595

10, 11, or 12 June, two galleons, [San Felipe] and Santiago; end of July, the San Pablo

July 1595, the San Agustín, which ship-wrecked en route 30 November 1595.

22 or 23 March,

San Felipe and the Santiago

1596

31 January 1596, survivors from the San Agustín; 1 June, 14 July, 5 August,

one of which was the Rosario; 22 July 1596, the San Pedro

July, San Felipe,

lost en route; the

San Gerónimo

“at the end of” 1596, the San Gerónimo

6 March, two ships, one of which = the Rosario; 25 or 28 March 1596, the San Pablo and the San Pedro

1597

4 June 1597, the

Santa Margarita and the

San Gerónimo; the

San Bartolomé

21 March 1597, the Santa Margarita & the

San Gerónimo; 23 November 1597, the

San Bartolomé; the San Diego

1598

10 March 1598, the San Pedro and the San Diego; 23 May 1598;

5 May 1598, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario and the San Bartolomé.

 

Santa Margarita;

[San Gerónimo]

21 January 1598, the San Bartolomé

[two or three more ships, February 1598]

9 or 10 February 1598, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario and the San Bartolomé; and 10 March 1598, the San Pedro and the San Diego

1599

17 June 1599; ?9 July 1599, the Santa Margarita, San Jeronimo, and La Contadora

Santo Tomas and two other ships

16 March 1599, the Santa Margarita, San Jeronimo, and La Contadora

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1600

1600, possibly 24 June, the Santa Potenciana

Santa Margarita and San Gerónimo; they did not arrive in Mexico

July 1600, two other vessels, one La Contadora

1 December 1600, the vessel other than La Contadora that left Manila 18 July 1600.

16 February 1600, the Santa Catalina;

22 February,

the Rosario;

25 March 1600, both the Santa Potenciana and the Santiaguillo

1601

April or 19 May, the patache San Antonio; the Santa Catalina

San Juan;

and two other ships which had to turn back to the Philippines

[January 1601, two of the three ships that had safely made the voyage from Manila in 1600]

February 1601, the Santo Tomás (lost en route);

and a patache,

February 1601, the San Antonio

1602

Four ships, April 1602 or 1 or 10 May, and

18 November 1602

Jesus María, the Espiritu Santo, and the Rosario (or the San Antonio). The first two returned to port.

[Rosario] or the San Antonio

4 February 1602, the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios, the Santa Potenciana, the San Ildefonso, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña, the Nuestra Señora de la Antigua; and possibly the San Francisco

1603

End of May, two ships; 21 June 1603; 22 June 1600, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario;

and 24 June 1600, the San Antonio de Pádua

4 July, Ntra Señora de la Antigua; 5 July, San Alfonso; Ntra Señora de los Remedios, but put back; and San Antonio, but lost at sea. The Magdalena capsized before departure.

10 July, Espiritu Santo & the Jesus Maria.

 

Nuestra Señora de la Antigua and San Alfonso

19 and 22 December, the Espiritu Santo and the Jesus Maria.

8 March 1603, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario and the San Antonio de Pádua

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1604

June and July 1604,

the Espíritu Santo and the San Diego

10 July, Espiritu Santo and Jesus María; Nuestra Señora de los Remedios (put back to port); and the San Antonio (lost at sea)

22 December 1604, the

Jesús María

16 March 1604, the Espíritu Santo and the San Diego; November 1604, the Nuestra Señora de la O.

1605

25 February; and

17 or 22 June, the

San Ildefonso and the Jesús María

July 1605, the Espíritu Santo

9 December 1605, the Espíritu Santo

22 or 25 March 1605, the San Ildefonso and the Jesús María

[; and a “fast dispatch boat”]

1606

10 May 1606, the Espiritu Santo;

16 July or 3 August

July 1606, the

Espiritu Santo; and one other ship

[Espiritu Santo; and one other ship]

22 or 25 February 1606, the Espiritu Santo; and the Santa Ana and the Nuestra Señora de la Antigua

1607

8 June 1607, the San Pedro y San Pablo;

18 June 1607,

the Santiago

31 March 1607, the San Pedro y San Pablo and the Santiago

1608

15 June 1608;

14 June 1608,

the Santa Ana and

the San Francisco

 

two sent, one wrecked en route

 

[one ship]

5 or 15 March 1608, the Santa Ana and the

San Francisco; the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios

1609

11 April 1609;

8 April 1609, the San Andrés, the Espíritu Santo, the San Pedro, and the Nuestra Señora de la O.

July 1609, 3 ships:

San Andrés, Santa Ana and San Francisco—the last 2 wrecked or ported en route

 

San Andrés

16 January 1609,

the San Andrés, the Espíritu Santo, the San Pedro, and the Nuestra Señora de la O.

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1610

4,6, 8, 9, or 10 June 1610, the San Francisco Javier and the San Andrés

12 July, San Juan Bautista; and one other that returned to port

the San Juan Bautista; and the Santa Ana, after a layover in Japan 1609-10, 7 October 1610

25 March, the

San Francisco Javier and the San Andrés

1611

20 June 1611, the San Juan Bautista, the Santa Ana, and the

San Buenaventura; August 1611

3 or 24 March 1611, the

San Juan Bautista,

the Santa Ana, and the San Buenaventura; 22 March 1611, the San Francisco, for Japan

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1612

1612; 10 or 11 1612, the Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and

the San Pedro

“advice patache alone was sent”

30 March 1612,

the Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and

the San Pedro

1613

7 or May 1613, the San Pedro; 31 July 1613, the San Andrés; 2 August 1613, the Santo Ángel de la Guarda

5 January 1613, the San Andrés; 5 February 1613, the Santo Ángel de la Guarda

12 March 1613, the San Pedro; 26 March 1613, the Santo Ángel de la Guarda; and 29 March 1613, the San Andrés

1614

Ship called the San Juan Bautista arrived 22 or 25 January 1614 from Japan

1615

20 June or 4 July 1615, the San Andrés;

20 June 1615,

the Santiago;

22 June 1615,

the Santa Margarita;

26 July 1615,

the San José

 

[two galleons]

 

[one arrived 24 December 1615; the other 1 January 1616]

27 March 1615, the San Andrés, the Santiago, the San José, and the Santa Margarita; 31 October 1615, the San Antonio; to Japan, 28 April 1615, the San Juan Bautista

1616

 

October; 20 or 24 November, the

Ángel de la Guarda

 

[two] ships, both put back to port

 

10 [1?] January 1616, the San Antonio

?the San Antonio; 1 April 1616, the Ángel de la Guarda; 26 March 1616, the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios, lost en route

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1617

February and March, two small boats; 26 or 30 June or 4 July 1617, the San Gerónimo

[two] ships, both put back to port

from Japan, the San Juan Bautista

[at least 3 ships sent], including

27 March 1617, the San Gerónimo

1618

2 or 5 July; 5 July 1618, the Espíritu Santo and the San Juan Bautista; 31 July 1618, the San Andrés; 21 August 1618

10 August 1618, two ships, one of which was the Espiritu Santo

two, December, one of which was the

Espiritu Santo

31 March 1618, the San Andrés and the San Juan Bautista; 1 April 1618, the Ángel de la Guarda;

2 April 1618, the Espíritu Santo and possibly one other ship

1619

4 July 1619,

the San Andrés and the San Gerónimo;

3 August 1618, two ships arrived, one was the Espiritu Santo

early August, 1619,

the San Nicolas

 

the San Nicolas

20 March 1619, the San Andrés and the

San Gerónimo; [the Espiritu Santo]

1620

16 August 1620, the San Nicolás (blown ashore in Samar after a battle with the Dutch) and the patache (the Nuestra Señora del Rosario)

 

2 ships, one sank and the other put back

4 or 9 April 1620, two ships, a patache (the Nuestra Señora del Rosario) and the San Nicolás

1621

5 August 1621, or 24 or 26 October 1621, the San Andrés

Nuestra Señora de la Vida, but shipwrecked while still in the archipelago

two ships, the San Andrés (departed 6 April 1621); and the San Nicolás, lost en route

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1622

3 or more ships, 25 June 1622, the Santiago; in July 1622, and 5 August; ?23 November, the San Jacinto; ?26 November, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario; and ?30 November 1622, the San Juan Bautista

 

 

two ships, one of which sank en route

 

 

[one ship]

3 ships, two left 16 September and the third in late September or early October. Another ship may have left 25 March 1622.

1623

?16 July 1623, the San Andrés; and 31 July 1623, the Nuestra Señora de Atocha

19, 20, or 23 March 1623, the San Andrés and the Nuestra Señora de Atocha

1624

at least one ship arrived in 1624 from Acapulco

26 or 27 March 1624, the San Luís and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1625

8, 19, or 29 July or 1 August 1625, the Nuestra Señora de Atocha and the Santísima Trinidad

5 or 6 April 1625, the Nuestra Señora de Atocha

and the Santísima Trinidad

1626

18, 25, 28, or 29 June 1626, more than one ship—at least the San Ignacio and the San Jacinto, possibly the San Raymundo and the San Luís as well

[at least two sent, the San Ignacio and the San Jacinto]

at least two, the

San Ignacio and the San Jacinto

at least two, probably the

San Ignacio and the San Jacinto; 26 March 1626, the

San Raymundo and the San Luís

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1627

?27 July 1627, the San Jacinto; ?16 September, the San Ignacio

more than one ship

25 March 1627, the San Luís;

4 April 1627, the San Jacinto and the San Ignacio

1628

3 or 4 or 7 August 1628, the San Luis, the San Ignacio, and the San Raimundo

? galleons departed

4 August 1628

3 April 1628, the San Raimundo, the San Luis, and the San Ignacio

1629

July 1629, the San Ignacio and the San Jacinto.

4 August, San Juan and one other ship (which put back to port)

the San Juan

29 March 1629, the San Ignacio and the

San Jacinto

1630

14 July 1630, two ships and a patache, presumably the

San Juan Bautista

4 August, 2 ships, hard and long voyages, the San Ignacio and

the San Jacinto

July and August 1631, the

San Ignacio and the San Jacinto

“two small vessels” and the San Juan Bautista

1631

?11 July 1631, the

San Francisco;

?28 July 1631, the

San Juan Evangelista

La Magdalena, turned turtle in the harbor; the Santa Margarita, returned to port

July and August, two ships that had left Manila August 1630, the San Ignacio and the San Jacinto

4 April 1631, the San Francisco and the

San Juan Evangelista

1632

two ships, one 25 or 26 May (San Luis); and 25 May or 10 July 1632, the San Raimundo

“Nuestra Señora de la Concepción”

22 or 23 February 1632, the

San Luis and the San Raimundo

1633

?10 July 1633, Mindoro, the San Luis and the Santa María Magdalena

“Nuestra Señora de la Concepción”

3 or 5 April 1633, the San Luis and the Santa María Magdalena

1634

20 July 1634, the San Raimundo and the [Nuestra Señora de la] Concepción

30 March 1634, the San Raimundo and the [Nuestra Señora de la] Concepción

1635

23, 25, or 29 June, Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the San Luis

none

[none]

3 April 1635, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the San Luis

1636

29 June 1636, the

San Nicolás and the San Ambrosio

none

[none]

4 April 1636, the San Nicolás and the San Ambrosio

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1637

none

24 August 1637, a patache, the

[San Juan Bautista]

the

San Juan Bautista

none

1638

?19 August 1638, both the San Ambrosio and the San Raimundo

August 1638, the San Ambrosio and the Concepción; shipwrecked en route

[none]

30 March 1638, the San Raimundo; and the San Ambrosio

1639

2 ships lost on the coast of Cagayan, the San Ambrosio and the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

7 or 8 August, the Concepción [not the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción that perhaps arrived 31 August 1639 in the Islands

 

[the San Ambrosio]

9 April 1639, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the San Ambrosio]

1640

?16 July 1640, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

30 March 1640, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

1641

Circa August 1641, Borongan,

the San Juan Bautista

30 March 1641, the San Juan Bautista

1642

July or August 1642, Mauban, the San Luis

 

 

3 April 1642, the San Luis

1643

7 July 1643, Binangonan de Lampon, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

 

two ships, one of which returned to port

 

[one ship]

31 March or 1 April 1643, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1644

June/August 1644, or ?4 August 1644, the San Luis Rey de Francia

two sent, September 1644, the Encarnación and the Rosario

 

29 March 1644, the San Luis Rey de Francia

1645

July 1645, Binangonan de Lampon and Palapag, the Encarnación and the Rosario

February 1645, the Encarnación and the Rosario

5 April 1645,

the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1646

 

 

[Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación]

 

 

the San Diego, but put back to port under attack

3 April 1646,

the San Luis sent but wrecked en route (Cagayan), 25 July 1646. Also sent was the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

1647

none

None

[none]

none

1648

July1648, Binangonan de Lampon, a patache, the Buen Jesús

1 May 1648, the

San Diego; 6 May 1648, Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

[the San Diego];

12 December 1648, Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

5 or 8 April 1648, a patache, the Buen Jesús

1649

October 1649, shipwreck of the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

1649, the

Nuestra Señora de Guía

31 March 1649, the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

1650

15 August 1650, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

the San Diego, but had to put back to port

none

1 April 1650, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

1651

none

the San Diego, but put back to port, again

[none]

none

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1652

none; ?26 May 1652

[the San Francisco Javier]

the San Francisco Javier

none

1653

22 or 23 July 1653, or ?September 1653, the

San Francisco Javier

3 March 1653, the San Francisco Javier

1654

13 June 1654, the San Diego, wrecked on arrival, May 1654; may have been a second ship, September 1654

 

the San Francisco Xavier

 

the San Francisco Xavier

22 February 1654, the San Diego, lost en route; may have been a 2nd ship

1655

San Francisco Javier, shipwrecked in Samar, 19 October 1655

the Victoria and the Santiago, but they both put back to port

31 March 1655, the San Francisco Javierr

1656

none

2 ships, but they both put back to port

none

1657

None

?San José

ship arrived, ?the San José?, the crew and passengers dead

none

1658

8 or 18 August 1658, the Nuestra Señora de la Victoria; and, 3 September 1658, the San José

8 August 1658, the Ntra.Sra.de la Victoria; and, 25 March 1658, the San José

1659

1 August 1659, Binangonan de Lampon, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

5 ?April 1659, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

1660

15 September 1660, the San José

none

1 April 1660, the San José

1661

none

 

none

None

1662

10 or 13 July 1662, perhaps near Binangonan de Lampon, the San Damián

 

San José

None (the San José must have arrived in 1663)

5 April 1662, the San Damián

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1663

8 July 1663, Cagayan (September, Manila), the San José

San Sabiniano, but returned to port

[probably the San José, which had left the Islands in 1662]

25 March 1663, the San José

1664

10 July? 1664, the Concepción

the San José

the San José

29 March 1664, the Concepción

1665

?9 July 1665,

the San José

Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

31 March 1665, the San José

1666

?24 June 1666, the San Jose; Palapag, 15 August 1666, the Nuestra Señora de la

Concepción

two left, both returned to port. Apparently La Concepción departed successfully

[La Concepción]

the San José; 25 March 1666, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción

1667

August 1667,

La Concepción and/or the San José

28 August 1667, Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro; and the patache San Diego

Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro; and the San Diego (?January 1668)

end of February or March 1667, La Concepción; and/or the

San José

1668

June, July, or Sept. 1668, the Ntra Señora del Buen Socorro & the Buen Socorro

the San José

?January 1668, the San Diego

25 March 1668, the San Diego & the Ntra Señora del Buen Socorro

1669

July or September 1669, the San José

the Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro and the San Diego(from Binangonan de Lampon); both put back to port (Cavite and Binangonan de Lampon)

22 January 1669, the San José

26 or 27 March 1669, the San José

1670

none

the San Diego, but it put back to port; perhaps two others were dispatched as well

perhaps one or two ships, perhaps the Buen Socorro

none

1671

July (Palapag) and then on to Manila in August 1671, the Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro; and

the Santo Niño

18 March 1671, the Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro; also, date not known, the Santo Niño

1672

10 June 1672, the

San Diego

the San Telmo, but returned to port;

the San Antonio

6 February 1672, the San Diego

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1673

15 July 1673, the

San Antonio de Pádua

20 March 1673, the San Antonio de Pádua

1674

12 August 1674, the Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro

the San Telmo

the San Telmo

31 March 1674, the Nuestra Señora del Buen Socorro

1675

13 August 1675, the San Telmo

[perhaps one sent]

26 March 1675, the San Telmo

1676

22 June or 20 July, the San Antonio de Pádua

the Santa Rosa

the Santa Rosa

21 March 1676, the San Antonio de Pádua

1677

Before 16 November 1677, the Santa Rosa

the Santa Rosa (which turned back in 1678) and the San Telmo

the San Telmo

29 March 1677, the Santa Rosa

1678

21 September 1678,

the San Telmo

San Antonio de Pádua

31 March 1678, the San Telmo

1679

Perhaps before 20 November 1679, the

San Antonio de Pádua; the San Telmo; and the Santa Rosa

24 June 1679, the

San Antonio de Padua

San Antonio de Pádua, 8 January 1679

31 March 1679, the San Antonio de Pádua; the

San Telmo; and the [Santa Rosa]

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1680

12 July 1680,

the Santa Rosa

22 June 1680, the San Telmo; and the San Antonio

[?San Antonio de Pádua]

25 March 1680, the Santa Rosa

1681

On or before 13 October 1681, the San Telmo; the San Antonio

22 June 1681, the

San Antonio de Pádua. The Santa Rosa, but forced to return to port

22 January 1681, the San Telmo; [the San Antonio]

the San Antonio;

28 March 1681, the San Telmo

1682

24 July 1682, the San Antonio de Pádua

the Santa Rosa, but forced to return to port

27 March 1682, the San Antonio de Pádua

1683

none

22 June 1683, the Santa Rosa; and, 30 June 1683, the San Telmo

the Santa Rosa and

the San Telmo

none

1684

14 July 1684, the San Telmo; and 31 August 1684, the Santa Rosa

1 July 1684, the Santo Niño Jesús de Cebú

[?the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía?]

Santo Niño Jesús de Cebú [?the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía?]

4 April 1684, the San Telmo; and the Santa Rosa

1685

25 June, 5, or 19 July 1685, the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía;

?San Telmo

23 June 1685,

the Santa Rosa

the Santa Rosa, 20 December 1685.

31 March 1685, the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía

and ?San Telmo

1686

11 July 1686, the

Santa Rosa

none

none

31 March 1686, the Santa Rosa

1687

[none]

Santo Niño [Jesús de Cebú], but forced to return to port

[none]

None

1688

10 July 1688, the patache Santo Rey [Don? ?San] Fernando

the Santo Cristo de Burgos; the Santo Niño [Jesús de Cebú]

[the Santo Niño [Jesús de Cebú]]?

31 March 1688, the patache Santo Rey [Don? ?San] Fernando

1689

16 July 1689, the

Santo Cristo de Burgos; and the

Santa Rosa de Lima

 

[one?]

the Santo Cristo de Burgos, 15 February 1689; ?one arrived 19 December 1689

31 March 1689, the Santo Cristo de Burgos; and the Santa Rosa de Lima;

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1690

 

 

19 or 25 or 28 July 1690, the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía

 

Nuestra Señora del Rosario

Santo Cristo de Burgos

 

[Nuestra Señora del Rosario]

[Santo Cristo de Burgos]

20 March 1690, the Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza (which was wrecked en route, in the Marianas

1691

the Santo Cristo de Burgos

23 March 1691, the Santo Cristo de Burgos

1692

30 June 1692, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Francisco Xavier; and the Santo Cristo de Burgos

the Santo Cristo de Burgos, but returned to port; [Santa Rosa de Lima]

the Santa Rosa de Lima

21 March 1692, the Ntra. Sra. del Rosario y San Francisco Xavier; and [the] Santo Cristo de Burgos

1693

none

July 1693, the Santo Cristo de Burgos (but lost en route)

none

1694

28 June1694, the patache San José

the San José, galleon, lost en route; & a patache

a patache

,the patache

San José

1695

23 June 1695, the Santo Niño and the San José

the Santo Niño and the San José

1696

25 July 1696, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

a patache sent;

24 June 1696,

the San José

a patache

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1697

24 July 1697, the

San José

28 June 1697

20 January 1697, the San José

25 or 30 March 1697,

the San José

1698

9 July 1698, the

San Francisco Xavier

Nuestra Señora del Rosario

and (?) the San Gerónimo

the San Francisco Xavier

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1699

the San Francisco Xavier and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, one of which arrived 3 September 1699

the San Francisco Xavier, which would arrive in Acapulco 15 January 1700

Nuestra Señora del Rosario, 11 January 1699

San Francisco Xavier

and the

Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1700

15 June and then 2 October or 20 November 1700, the San Francisco Xavier

26 June 1700, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

15 January 1700, the San Francisco Xavier (had left Manila in 1699); 5 December 1700, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

the

San Francisco Xavier

1701

29 June 1701, Borongan, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario]

5 July or 2 August 1701, the

San Francisco Javier (which would arrive in Acapulco 8 January 1702)

27 March 1701, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1702

9 July 1702, Palapag, the

San Francisco Xavier

on or about 15 July 1702, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, which would arrive in Acapulco 12 January 1703

8 January 1702, the San Francisco Xavier, which had left the islands in July or August 1701

on or before 31 March 1702, the San Francisco Xavier

1703

5 July 1703, Sorsogon, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

25 June 1703, the [Nuestra Señora del] Rosario [y San Vicente Ferrer] (which would arrive in Acapulco 15 January 1704)

12 January 1703, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, which had left the Philippines in July 1702

25 March 1703, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1704

on or before 9 March 1704, the San Francisco Xavier; and, 7 July 1704, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Vicente Ferrer

 

 

 

?Nuestra Senõra del Rosario?

15 January 1704, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Vicente Ferrer (had sailed from the Islands 25 June 1703).

?Nuestra Señora del Rosario?

[the

San Francisco Xavier]; and

19 March 1704, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Vicente Ferrer

1705

June 1705

[one sent]

[one arrived]

the San Francisco Xavier, lost at sea en route; [and one other]

1706

none

6 July 1706,

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

20 December 1706, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

none

1707

3 October 1707, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

12 July 1707, the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación (which would arrive in Acapulco 2 February 1708)

8 March 1707, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1708

perhaps 10 July 1708, the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación; and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Vicente Ferrer

 

2 February 1708, the

Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

(left the islands 12 July 1707)

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Vicente Ferrer; and, 30 March 1708, the Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación

1709

 

at least one ship

the Nuestra Señora de Begoña (attacked by Anson, escapes, arrives Acapulco 26 January 1710);

Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación y Desengaño, captured by Rogers

 

1710

28 July 1710, Sorsogon, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

on or about 30 July 1710, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

26 January 1710, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña (had departed the Islands in 1709); on or about 13 Dec. 1710, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

31 March 1710, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

1711

9 or 11 July 1711, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

19 August 1711, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña (which would arrive in Acapulco 19 January 1712)

25 March 1711, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

1712

8 August 1712,

probably, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

19 January 1712, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña, which had left the Islands 19 August 1711

31 March 1712, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1713

7 August 1713, probably the Santo Cristo de Burgos

[one galleon?]

the Santo Cristo de Burgos

1714

 

the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

3 August 1714, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas (which would arrive in Acapulco 3 January 1715)

 

[Galleon arrived, February 1714?]

 

the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

1715

?14 July or 13 August 1715, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas

3 January 1715, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas, which had left the Islands 3 August 1714

1 April 1715, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas

1716

 

[none]

[the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas]

the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas

 

[none]

1717

July 1717, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas

6 September 1717, the Nuestra Señora de

Begoña (which would arrive in Acapulco 26 January 1718)

31 March 1717, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, San Judas Tadeo y las Benditas Ánimas

1718

28 July and 10 August, the Sacra Familia; and 2 July, Borongan, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

the Sacra Familia (would arrive in Acapulco in 1719)

26 January 1718, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña, which had sailed from the Islands 6 September 1717

31 March 1718, the Nuestra Señora de Begoña; possibly also the Sacra Familia

1719

none

the

Sacra Familia, which had departed the Islands in 1718

none

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1720

8 July 1720, the

Sacra Familia

the

Sacra Familia

1721

20 July or 6 August 1721, the Santo Cristo de Burgos; and sometime before

30 June 1721, a “patache extraordinario”

?March 1721, the Santo Cristo de Burgos; and a “patache extraordinario”

1722

the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

30 June or 27 July 1722, the

Sacra Familia

25 December 1722, the

Sacra Familia

the Nuestra Señora de Begoña

1723

22 June 1723, the Sacra Familia

on or about 6 March 1723, the Sacra Familia

1724

6 August 1724

the Sacra Familia

[the

Sacra Familia]

1725

around 12 July 1725, the Sacra Familia

2 July 1725, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

29 November 1725, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

6 April 1725, the Sacra Familia

1726

one arrived?, July, probably in that case the patache, the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

July, the Santo Cristo de Burgos, lost en route; 2 September 1726, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores (which would arrive in Acapulco 7 February 1727)

 

 

none [?]

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1727

 

one arrived?, ?on or before 3 July; 17 July 1727, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

 

7 July 1727, the

Sacra Familia

7 February 1727, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, which had departed Cavite 2 September 1726; 24 December 1727, the Sacra Familia

 

5 April 1727, the patache the Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

1728

5 or 7 July 1728, Borongan, the Sacra Familia

10 or 20 July 1728, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

(arrived Acapulco 26 or 28 January 1729

27 or 30 March 1728, the Sacra Familia

1729

July 1729, 9 or 14 August 1729, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

11 July 1729, the Sacra Familia (would arrive in Acapulco 19 January 1730)

26 or 28 January 1729, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

(departed Islands in 1728)

around 31 March or ?May 1729, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

1730

at least one arrived, perhaps in September 1730, perhaps survivors from the Sacra Familia

16 July 1730, the Nuestra Señora de Guía (which would arrive in Acapulco 20 February 1731)

19 January 1730, the Sacra Familia (had departed Cavite 11 July 1729)

9 or 31 March 1730, the Sacra Familia, lost en route,

in Mindoro, 9 or 10 November 1730

1731

perhaps in July 1731, or with more likelihood 19 September 1731, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

18 July 1731, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga;

and the San Cristóbal, both to arrive in Acapulco in January 1732

20 February 1731, the Nuestra Señora de Guía, which had sailed from Cavite 16 July 1730

5 April 1731, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1732

 

 

7 June 1732,

the San Cristóbal;

11 July 1732, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

 

 

11 July 1732, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

20 January 1732, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, which had departed Cavite 18 July 1731; and, 26 January 1732, the San Cristóbal, which had sailed from Cavite on or about 18 July 1731 also

 

 

?21 or 31 March 1732,

the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga;and the San Cristóbal

1733

14 June or 10 July 1733, the Nuestra Señora de Guía; 16 July 1733, the Santo Cristo de Burgos

two galleons sent, 26 July 1733, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga and the San Cristóbal [or Nuestra Señora del Pilar] (would arrive in Acapulco in 1734)

18 February 1733, the Nuestra Señora de Guía, which had sailed from Cavite 11 July 1732

the Santo Cristo de Burgos;

and, 6 or 7 April 1733, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

1734

on or before 14 August 1734, probably 25-26 July, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga; and the San Cristóbal [the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza]

 

6 July 1734, the San Cristóbal (would arrive in Acapulco 6 July 1735) and (very doubtfully) one other

21 February 1734, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga and the San Cristóbal, both ships having left Cavite on or about 26 July 1733

9 April 1734, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga; and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza; [?the San Cristóbal]

1735

the San Cristóbal, shipwrecked, perhaps in Bulusan, 29 or 30 June 1735

30 July 1735, the Nuestra Señora de Guía; and the Encarnación(???)

16 January 1735, the San Cristóbal, which had departed Cavite 6 July 1734; [the Encarnación???]

29 March 1735, the San Cristóbal

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1736

30 August 1736, Sorsogon, the Nuestra Señora de Guía (left Sorsogon 19 February 1737 and arrived in Cavite 4 March 1737)

31 July 1736, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga; and, probably, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

24 February 1736, the Nuestra Señora de Guía; ? the Nuestra Señora del Pilar; and 17 January 1737, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

 

 

16 or 17 April 1736, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

1737

19 July or around 1 August or on 9 October 1737, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga; 16 September 1737, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza. Both ships could not reach Cavite until 29 January 1738.

 

25 July 1737, the Nuestra Señora de la Guía

17 January 1737, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, which had sailed from Cavite 31 July 1736

2 April 1737, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga; and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza

1738

on or about 28 or 30 July 1738, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

3 August 1738, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

9 February 1738, the Nuestra Señora de Guía, which had left Cavite 25 July 1737; 23 February 1739, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar;

5 April 1738, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1739

July, 6 September, or 20 August 1739, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza

 

the Nuestra Señora de Guía

23 February 1739, the the Nuestra Señora del Pilar, which had left Cavite 3 August 1738

11 or 12 April 1739, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza

1740

11 August 1740, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

13 July 1740, the patache, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

27 January 1741, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

30 April or 2 May 1740, the Nuestra Señora de Guía

1741

 

 

2 August 1741, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

 

 

the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

27 January 1741, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, which had left Cavite 13 July 1740; 9 or 19 January 1742, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

 

 

1 April 1741, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

1742

 

19 March 1743, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

 

the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga

[Nuestra Señora de Covadonga]; 19 January 1742, having left the Islands in 1741, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

 

7 December 1742, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

1743

19 March 1743, the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

July 1743, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, but forced to return to port

[the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga]

15 or 4 April, the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, but captured by Anson en route

1744

the patache, the San Francisco

none

[none]

the patache, the San Francisco

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1745

the Santo Domingo; 13 July 1745, the San Francisco

the patache Santo Domingo

early 1746, the patache Santo Domingo

25 March 1745, the San Francisco; [the Santo Domingo]

1746

 

?March 1747, the Santo Domingo

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario;

and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario; the Nuestra Señora del Pilar; the Santo Domingo, end of February or March 1746

 

[the Santo Domingo]

1747

March and June/July, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y de los Santo Reyes; and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza.

Perhaps, 6 May 1747, the Santo Domingo

the Rosario, but returned to port;

7 August 1747, the patache Santo Domingo, but returned to port in December

[none]

8 April 1747, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y de los Santo Reyes; and the Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza. [Earlier, the Santo Domingo]

1748

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y Santos Reyes, but returned to port

[none]

1749

8 April 1749, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario; [the Pilar]

[the Nuestra Senora del Rosario]

1750

10 or 18 or 20 July 1750, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y los Santos Reyes; ?the Pilar

June or July1750,

the Pilar, but shipwrecked en route

January 1750, Pilar

around 28 January 1750 or on 8 April 1750, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y los Santos Reyes; ?the Pilar

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1751

 

[none]

18 August 1751, the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

[the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin]

 

[none]

1752

 

18 August, 2 September; 3 October, or November 1752, the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

7 February 1752, the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin; 3 July 1752, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

[the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin; and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino]

 

?5 April 1752, the Nuestra Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

1753

30 July 1753, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

28 July 1753, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora. del Buen Fin

2 January 1754, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora. del Buen Fin

around 30 March 1753, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

1754

6 July 1754, the Nuestra Señora de la Trinidad

9 August 1754, a champán, probably the patache the Filipino y San Juan Bautista

2 January 1754 (departed the Islands in 1753), the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

the Nuestra Señora de la Trinidad

1755

around 30 July 1755, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

22 or 23 July or 8 August 1755, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

28 February 1756, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

around

30 March 1755, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1756

4, 5, 6, or 10 October, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

9 August 1756, the patache, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

28 February, departed from the Islands in 1755, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

29 April 1756, the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin

1757

13 July 1757, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

 

30 July 1757, the Nuestra Señora de la Portería

[the Nuestra Señora de la Portería]

10 April 1757, the patache, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) El Filipino

1758

27 August or 5 September 1758, the Nuestra Señora de la Portería; and possibly a patache called the Filipinas

3 August 1758, the Santísima Trinidad (alias) el Poderoso

a patache called the Filipinas

el patache Nuestra Señora de la Portería; possibly a patache called the Filipinas

1759

15 or 18 July 1759, the Santísima Trinidad

22 August 1759, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) el Philipino

January 1760, Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) el Philipino

25 March 1759, the Santísima Trinidad

1760

13, 15, or 16 July 1760, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (alias) el Filipino

30 July 1760,

the Santísima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora de Buen Fin

January 1760, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista (alias) el Philipino (left the Islands in 1759)

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (alias) el Filipino

1761

the Santísima Trinidad (alias) el Poderoso

the Santísima Trinidad; and (?) the Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Juan Bautista

[the Santísima Trinidad]

7 April 1761, the Santísima Trinidad (alias) el Poderoso

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1762

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (alias) el Filipino

1 August 1762, the Santísima Trinidad (alias) Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin, returned to port and was captured by the English

the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, y San Juan Bautista

10 April 1762, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (alias) el Filipino

1763

25 July 1763,

at least one

none

[none]

[at least one sent?]

1764

16 March 1764,

the Santa Rosa

14 August 1764, the Santa Rosa

[the Santa Rosa]

the Santa Rosa

1765

2, 3, or 6 July, the Santa Rosa

7 September 1765, the Santa Rosa

[the Santa Rosa]

6 April 1765, the Santa Rosa

1766

 

23 June 1766,

the Santa Rosa

the Santa Rosa;

13 August, the San Carlos Borromeo

 

the Santa Rosa

1 April 1766, the Santa Rosa; and, 24 December 1766, from San Blas, the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad (alias) La Sonora]

1767

19 May 1767, the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad (alias) La Sonora; 12, 18, or 20 July 1767, the San Carlos Borromeo

7 August 1767, the Santa Rosa

the San Carlos Borromeo

3 April 1767, the San Carlos Borromeo

1768

22 October 1768, the Santa Rosa

3 or 8 August 1768, the

San Carlos [Borromeo], but returned to port

3 April 1768, the Santa Rosa

1769

???July 1769, the San Carlos [Borromeo]

the San Carlos

[?San Carlos]

?[?the San Carlos?]?

1770

on or about 31 July 1770, the San Carlos [Borromeo]

23 August, the

San José, but had to return to port

29 March 1770, the San Carlos [Borromeo]

1771

[none?]

the San José

[none?]

 

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1772

 

6 or 27 July 1772,

the San José

 

San Carlos (alias) A. Burro Mio [sic], but returned to port, where it was burned, hit by a thunderbolt; 12 July 1772, the Nuestra Señora del Rosario

[?the Nuestra Señora del Rosario]

2 April 1772, the San José

1773

 

 

 

6 January 1773, the Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (alias) El Buen Fin; the San José

4 December 1773, the Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (alias) El Buen Fin; the San José]

 

1774

August 1774, the San José de Gracia

the Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (alias) El Buen Fin

the Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (alias) El Buen Fin

5 April 1774, the San José de Gracia

1775

 

the San José

17 or 19 April 1775, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción (alias) el Desengaño, wrecked en route

1776

8 August 1776, the San José de Gracia; and, on or about 9 August 1776, the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción (alias) La Balandra

the San Pedro

the San Pedro

29 March 1776, the San José de Gracia; and the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción (alias) La Balandra

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1777

[none]

[none]

1778

July 1778, the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño; and 16 September 1778, ?the San José de Gracia?

the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño; and the San José [de Gracia]

San José [de Gracia]; and the [San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño]

the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño; and,

15 March 1778, the San José de Gracia

1779

16 June 1779, the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

San Antonio Xavier (alias) El Filipino; [the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño];3 June 1779, the San José

21 November 1779, the San José de Gracia;

the San Pedro

11 March 1779, the San Pedro el Caviteño; and, 18 December 1779, the San Antonio alias el Principia

1780

16 April 1780, the

San Antonio (alias)

el Principe; and,

11 June 1780,

the San José

1 June 1780, the

San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño; and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, alias La Princesa; and the

San Pedro.

27 October 1780, the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

on or about 15 February 1780, the San José

1781

8 May 1781, the

San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

[the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño

1782

May or 20 July 1782, the San José de Gracia

June 1782, the San Pedro (alias) el Caviteño, but it was lost at sea

the San José de Gracia

1783

?6 November 1783, the Princesa

?12 July 1783, the Princesa

1784

8 June 1784, the San José; the San Andrés; and the [San Pedro]

San Felipe; San José [de Gracia]; and the San Pedro el Caviteño

11 November or December 1784, the San Felipe; the

San José [de Gracia]; and the San Pedro el Caviteño

the San José; the

San Pedro; and the

San Andrés

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1785

 

on or about 14 July 1785, the San Felipe

 

the [San Felipe]; and the [San José?]

the

San Felipe;

and the

[San José?]

15, 17, or 21 February 1785, the

San Felipe; the Santiago; and the Princesa

1786

8 or 9 July 1786, the San José de Gracia; 3 or 11 August 1786.

the San Andrés

the San José;

and the

San Andrés

La Felicidad; and, 5 March 1786, the San José de Gracia

1787

May or 1 July or 10 July. The Felicidad; the San Carlos; and La Princesa; on or about 23 August 1787, the San Andrés

 

14 July 1787,

the San Andrés

 

the San Andrés

on or about 30 March 1787, the San Andrés

1788

16 or 20 June, 22 September, or 18 October 1788, the San José

26 March 1788, the San José

1789

14 or 20 September 1789, probably a ship coming from Spain via Africa and South Asia?

Otherwise, [none]

the San Carlos

(alias) el Filipino

the San Carlos

(alias) el Filipino

 

[none]

1790

1 August 1790; 12 September 1790, the San Andrés

[the San Andrés]

on or about 24 March 1790, the San Andrés

1791

on or about 1 July 1791, the San Andrés

the San Andrés

the San Andrés

1792

4 June 1792; 23 July 1792, [probably the San Andrés]

the San Andrés; and the

[San José]

the [San Andrés]; and the

San José

8 March 1792, the

San Andrés

1793

28 August or around 2 September 1793, the San José

the San José; and, around 31 March 1793, the Rey Carlos

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1794

the [San Fernando Magallanes]

27 November 1794, the San Fernando Magallanes

28 February 1794, the San Andrés

1795

9 May, 19 June, or 20 June 1795, the Magallanes

the San Andrés, but she had to return to port

at least two?

9 March 1795, the Magallanes; and 25 December 1795, the Activo

1796

26 June, at least one ship

?San Andrés

?San Andrés

1 March, at least one ship;

25 December, from San Blas, the Activo

1797

11 or 15 March; the Activo;

around 11 September, the San Andrés

Magallanes;

[San Andrés]

Magallanes; San Andrés

18 February, the San Andrés

1798

possibly 7 April, possibly the Magallanes;

25 May, the Fama

San Andrés de las Naranjas and the Pilar. The San Andrés was shipwrecked en route; [San José de Gracía]; [Fama]; [Magallanes]

the Pilar; the San José de Gracía;the Fama; and the Magallanes

possibly 2 January, possibly the Magallanes; 11 March,

the Fama

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1799

17 May, the Magallanes; around 30 June, Nuestra Señora del Pilar;also arrived the San Pedro alias el Caviteño

San Pedro alias el Caviteño; 13 March, Nuestra Señora del Pilar and the Magallanes

1800

around 14 July, the Pilar

San Rafael alias Comercio de Manila; [Magallanes]; [two other fragatas]

San Rafael (alias) Comercio de Manila; Magallanes; two fragatas

San Rafael alias Comercio de Manila; 13 March, Pilar; Magallanes

1801

around 15 May, the Magallanes, the Fama, and the Lucia

Montañes; San Rafael; [Rey Carlos]

Montañes;

San Rafael (to San Blas and Callao); Rey Carlos

5 March, the Magallanes, the Fama, and the Lucia

1802

around 31 May,

El Montañes

Principia Asturias; Concepción; ?Nra. Sra. de Guía (alias) la Casualidad

Principia Asturias; Concepción; Nra. Sra. de Guía (alias) la Casualidad

At least one, 4 March,

El Montañes

1803

 

Nancy; Franklin

 

Nancy; Franklin

Casualidad;

Concepción (from

San Blas); Principe de Asturias(from San Blas)

1804

at least one ship, prob. the Magallanes

[Concepción]

Concepción

March, the Nao San Fernando (alias) el Magallanes

1805

10 or 19 April, prob. the Magallanes

[San Rafael]

San Rafael

8 February, the San Fernando alias the Magallanes

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1806

Concepción; the San Fernando alias el Magallanes;

[San Andrés;

Rey Carlos; Casualidad]

11 December, La Esperanza, but wrecked en route;

El Hardinger;

?el Montañez;

San Andrés;

[San Rafaell; San Fernando alias el Magallanes, but had to return to port

El Hardinger;

el Montañez; San Andrés;

San Rafael

Concepción; San Fernando alias the Magallanes;

San Andrés

1807

[San Fernando, el Magallanes;

San Francisco Xavier]

San Fernando, alias el Magallanes; San Francisco Xavier (to San Blas)

1808

San Fernando alias the Magallanes

San Fernando alias the Magallanes

[Magallanes]

22 or 27 April, the San Fernando alias the Magallanes

1809

around 30 July, the Activo

[el Nao de Filipinas]

30 November, el Nao de Filipinas

the Activo

1810

4 March; 12 June.

[a Goleta Mosca]

la Goleta Mosca

[at least two ships]

 

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

1811

San Fernando alias the Magallanes

Rey Fernando[alias the Magallanes]

[Rey Fernando [alias the Magallanes]]

[Magallanes]

 

1812

none

none

none

none

1813

4 September, prob. not from Americas

none

none

none

1814

?9 September, prob. not from Americas

[?San Rafael]

?San Rafael

?Fidelidad

?Rey Fernando

1815

18 or 19 July

Magallanes

?Victoria

?Victoria

Magallanes

 

 

 

 

Arrive Philippines

Depart Philippines

Arrive Mexico

Depart Mexico

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations, Terms, and Frequently Used Sources

 

AGI, Filipinas, “1771. Testimonio literal ….”

Archivo General de las Indias.

Audiencia de Filipinas, Legajo 967, “1771. Testimonio literal de la Real Cedula y Reglamento de 19 de Diciembre de 1769 para este Comercio y de varios Certificos de oficiales Reales dado a Solicitud del Consulado, e Ynformes de la N. C. obras Pias, Religiones y Reverendos Obispo de Camarines, y Arzobispo de Manila que comprueban la grande diferencia que hay del valor de los generos en esta Republica en el año de 736 a lo que valen en el presente, y las Perdidas, y que brantos que ha tenido desde aquel año á este, las que han motivado el deplorable estado, y suma pobreza en que se halla.” 215ff.

AGI, Filipinas, “Mapa demostrativo … 1736 a 1770.”

Audiencia de Filipinas, Legajo 967, “Mapa demostrativo que representa los buques que se han despachado de estas islas al reino de Nueva España desde 1736 a 1770.” Folio 123, desplegable del testimonio anterior.

almiranta: “When two ships sailed the flagship of the general-commander was known as the capitana and her consort as the almiranta, or the admiral’s ship.” William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1939), 193

arribadas: Arribadas, or returns to port, were very frequent in the galleon navigation.”

Atmospheric Circulation Changes

Garcia, Rolando R., et al. “Atmospheric Circulation Changes in the Tropical Pacific Inferred from the Voyages of the Manila Galleons in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82:11 (November 2001), 2435-56, found at http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/.

British Library

= British Library, Additional Manuscript number 19293, Authenticated abstract of thirty official journals of as many voyages from the Philippine Islands to New Spain, made in the years 1699-1740. [please see the Bibliography for a fuller description]

BRPI = Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson

The Philippine Islands 1493-1898. Cleveland, Ohio: A. H. Clark Co., 1903-1909. 55 volumes.

Boxer, C. R.

Catalogue of Philippine Manuscripts in the Lilly Library. Bloomington: Asian Studies Research Institute (Occasional Papers, no. 2), Indiana University, 1968.

brisa: “Viento de la parte del Nordeste que es contrapuesto al vendaval.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 80.

 

Cano, Gaspar, O.S.A.

Catálogo de los religiosos de N. P. S. Agustin de la Provincia del Smo. Nombre de Jesus de Filipinas desde su establecimiento en estas islas hasta nuestros dias. Manila: Imp. de Ralmirez y Giraudier, 1864.

capitana: please see almiranta

champan: “Buque de la China y del Japón; largo, de mucho arrufo, de tres palos con velas de estera fina al tercio; el palo de proa muy inclinado hacia esta parte, la vela mayor muy grande y la mesana, chica. El buque se compone de seis u ocho cajones grandes unidos y bien calfateados; de modo que aunque se deshaga aquél, la gente se salva en éstos. Por lo regular navega en los rios y cerca de las costas, aunque con tiempo bonancible solían antes llegar hasta Filipinas.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 81.

 

Dahlgren, Erik Wilhelm

The Discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. New York: AMS Press, 1977. Reprint of Were the Hawaiian Islands Visited by the Spaniards before their discovery by Captain Cook in 1778?, which was issued as bd. 57, no. 4 of Kungl. Svenska vetenskapasakademien Handlingar (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1916).

I wish to thank Tom Peterson, author of Secrets of the Manila Galleons, who has spent over twelve years in researching these ships and who generously shared with me his manuscript index “Manila Galleon Movements” and the bibliography which led me to this book by Dahlgren.

 

de la Costa, Horacio, S.J.

The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967.

fragata: “Embarcación de tres palos con cofas y una sola batería corrida de popa a proa. Las hay de Guerra y mercantes, y en lo antiguo se construían hasta de doscientas toneladas.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 81.

 

galeota: “Galera menor.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 81.

 

galera: “Embarcación de carga, de pequeño porte, usada en las costas asiáticas.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 82.

 

Gomez Platero, O.F.M.

Gomez Platero, Eusebio, O.F.M.

Catálogo biográfico de los religiosos franciscanos de la provincia de San Gregorio Magno de Filipinas desde 1577 en que llegaron los primeros á Manila hasta los de nuestros días. Manila : Imprenta del Real Colegio de Santo Tomás, 1880.

 

paquebot: “Embarcación semejante al bertantín, con la diferencia de no ser tan fina, y de llevar vela mayor redonda, como las fragatas y mesana en lugar de cangreja, envergada en el esnón o husillo. Por lo regular suele servir para correo.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 82.

 

patache: “Embarcación de dos palos, y antiguamente de guerra que se destinaba en las escuadras para llevar avisos, reconocer las costas y guardar las entradas de los puertos. Hoy solo se usa en la marina mercante. Los españoles dieron también este nombre á los champagnes.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 82.

 

Pérez, Elviro Jorde, O.S.A.

Catálogo bio-bibliográfico de los religiosos Agustinos de la provincia del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de las Islas Filipinas desde su fundación hasta nuestros dias …. Manila: Colegio de Santo Tomas, 1901.

Quirino, Carlos; and Abraham Laygo

Regésto Guión Catálogo de los Documentos Existentes en México sobre Filipinas. Manila: El Comité de Amistad Filipino-Méxicana, 1965.

The Quirino source has a notable defect, fortunately surmountable. As a general rule, in the section “Ramo de Filipinas,” which is pp. 1-94 of this 541 page guide, the dates of the documents were not transcribed. Fortunately the Newberry Library, which has a microfilm copy of the documents in this section (but not of pages 95 ff.) also has a finding guide to the microfilm, which does have the dates. With the Quirino source and the aid of the finding guide, I was able to find and date references to many galleons engaged in the Acapulco-Manila transit. The documents listed subsequent to page 94, drawn from a variety of other areas of the Mexican national archives, do have dates listed.

 

Robles, Eliodoro G.

Supplement to the Calendar of Philippine Documents in the Ayer Collection, Edited by Paul S. Lietz. Chicago: The Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library, 1958. Manuscript listing, Newberry Library, Ayer Collection, Call Number = 290/L6128/1956 suppl.

Sádaba del Carmen, Francisco, O.R.S.A.

Catálogo de los religiosos agustinos recoletos de la Provincia de San Nicolás de Tolentino de Filipinas desde el año 1606, en que llegó la primera mission á Manila, hasta nuestros días…. Manila: Asilo de Huerfanos del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, 1906.

Schurz, William Lytle

The Manila Galleon. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1939.

vendaval: “En general se da este nombre a todo viento fuerte que sopla de la mar. Se llaman ‘vendavales’ los vientos que servían para volver de Indias, o de Filipinas a Méjico y eran desde el sur hasta el noroeste.”

María Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, “Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 83.

“The departure of the galleon from Manila ordinarily fell within the first months of this monsoon [the northeast monsoon, late September to April], which the Spaniards knew as the vendaval.”

William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1939), 217.

 

 

 

 

 

Major Sources Used (Bibliography)

Manuscripts

As always I wish to express my sincere thanks to the help of archivists at the following repositories who aided me in tracking down and retrieving copies of relevant sources, often through letters and e-mail and subsequent requests for copies. Their expertise and patience was crucial and very much appreciated. I also thank other colleagues in print and in person who helped guide me to these sources.

 

Archivo General de las Indias.

Audiencia de Filipinas, Legajo 967, “1771. Testimonio literal de la Real Cedula y Reglamento de 19 de Diciembre de 1769 para este Comercio y de varios Certificos de oficiales Reales dado a Solicitud del Consulado, e Ynformes de la N. C. obras Pias, Religiones y Reverendos Obispo de Camarines, y Arzobispo de Manila que comprueban la grande diferencia que hay del valor de los generos en esta Republica en el año de 736 a lo que valen en el presente, y las Perdidas, y que brantos que ha tenido desde aquel año á este, las que han motivado el deplorable estado, y suma pobreza en que se halla.” 215ff.

Audiencia de Filipinas, Legajo 967, “Mapa demostrativo que representa los buques que se han despachado de estas islas al reino de Nueva España desde 1736 a 1770.” Folio 123, desplegable del testimonio anterior.

One could just as readily cite this and the proceeding item as a single reference, since the chart is in fact part of the 1771 report. For convenience of citation I separate them. I thank Dr. Salvador P. Escoto for the reference to these two sources.

 

 

Bancroft Library, the University of California, Berkeley.

Philippine Commerce and the Manila Galleon Collection. BancMss 91/111 Z.

1788, Jan. 9: Part II, Two sets of accounts, one undated. Merchants’ accounts of Acapulco fairs.

 

The British Library.

Additional Manuscript number 19293, Authenticated abstract of thirty official journals of as many voyages from the Philippine Islands to New Spain, made in the years 1699-1740.

The Spanish title is Testimonio relativo de treinta diarios de la navegación hecha por diferentes navios de la carera de Philipinas para Nueva España con nota de las señales que vieron en las latitudes y longitudes por la navegación, y de las cosas que se ofricieron sobre necessidades daños y Guerra con inserción de algunas juntas.

The copy from the microfilm I saw (provided to me graciously by the supportive staff of the British Library) consisted of oversized folios, approximately 113 ff. in length, with additional folios with crude maps (often with compass and other notations, evidently from shipboard of a variety of ports in the Philippines) at the end. The reference came originally from Wayne V. Burt, “The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71:11 (November 1990), 1635, 1636.

A translation and a seventy-five page transcription of the galleon logs for 1699 to 1740 can be found in Tom Peterson’s Secrets of the Manila Galleons (Corvallis, Oregon: privately published, 2002; second edition, 2005), Chapter 10, “Logs of the Manila Galleons, 1699-1740,” as well as brief references to palomas noted in those logs in his Chapter 12, “Doves and the Manila Galleons.”

 

Major Published Sources

 

Blair, Emma Helen; and James Alexander Robertson

The Philippine Islands 1493-1898. Cleveland, Ohio: A. H. Clark Co., 1903-09. 55 v.

 

Boxer, C. R.

Catalogue of Philippine Manuscripts in the Lilly Library. Bloomington: Asian Studies Research Institute (Occasional Papers, no. 2), Indiana University, 1968.

Plata es Sangre: Sidelights on the Drain of Spanish-American Silver in the Far East, 1550-1700.” Philippine Studies, 18:3 (July 1970), 457-78.

 

Brand, Donald D. “Geographical Exploration by the Spaniards,” in Hernan R. Friis, ed., The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration (New York, 1967), 109-44, 362-75.

 

Burt, Wayne V.

“The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71:11 (November 1990), 1630-36.

 

Cano, Gaspar, O.S.A.

Catálogo de los religiosos de N. P. S. Agustin de la Provincia del Smo. Nombre de Jesus de Filipinas desde su establecimiento en estas islas hasta nuestros dias. Manila: Imp. de Ramirez y Giraudier, 1864.

 

Chaunu, Pierre

Las Filipinas y el Pacífico de los Ibéricos siglos XVI-XVII-XVIII (Estadísticas y Atlas). Mexico City: Instituto Mexicano de Comercio Exterior, 1974.

“Le Galion de Manille. Grandeur et decadence d’une route de la sole.” Annales, 6:4 (October-December 1951), 447-62.

 

 

Cosano Moyano, José

Filipinas y su Real Hacienda (1750-1800). Córdoba, Spain: Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Córdoba, 1986.

 

Dahlgren, Erik Wilhelm

The Discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. New York: AMS Press, 1977.

Reprint of Were the Hawaiian Islands Visited by the Spaniards before their discovery by Captain Cook in 1778?, which was issued as bd. 57, no. 4 of Kungl. Svenska vetenskapasakademien Handlingar (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1916).

 

de la Costa, Horacio, S.J.

The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967.

 

Díaz-Trechuelo Spínola, María Lourdes

“Dos Nuevos Derroteros del Galeon de Manila (1730 y 1773),” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 13 (1956), 1-83.

Also see Thomas K. Peterson, Secrets of the Manila Galleons (Corvallis, Oregon: privately published, 2002; second edition, 2005), Chapter 5, “The Working Career of Enrique Herman, Manila Galleon Pilot,” for more on the 1730 proposal.

 

Flynn, Dennis Ol; and Arturo Giráldez.

“Born with a ‘Silver Spoon’: The Origin of World Trade in 1571.” Journal of World History, 6:2 (1995), 201-21.

“China and the Manila Galleons.” IN A. J. H. Latham and Heita Kavakatsu, eds. Japanese Industrialization and the Asian Economy London: Routledge, 1994), 71-90.Also IN Dennis O. Flynn, ed., World Silver and Monetary History in the 16th and 17th Centuries (England: Variorum, 1996), reprint XV.

“Cycles of Silver: Global Economic Unity through the Mid-Eighteenth Century.” Journal of World History, 13:2 (Fall 2002), 391-427.

 

 

Flynn, Dennis O., Arturo Giráldez, and James Sobredo, eds.

European Entry into the Pacific. Spain and the Acapulco-Manila Galleons. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2001.

 

Garcia, Rolando R., et al.

“Atmospheric Circulation Changes in the Tropical Pacific Inferred from the Voyages of the Manila Galleons in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82:11 (November 2001), 2435-56, found at http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/.

 

García González, Antonio F.

El Gobierno en Filipinas del Ilmo. Sr. Don Fray Juan de Arechederra y Tovar, Obispo de la Nva. Segovia. Spain: Universidad de Granada, 1976.

 

Gerhard, Peter.

Pirates on the West Coast of New Spain 1575-1742. Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1960. Reprinted in what appears to be an exact copy in 1990 by the University of Nebraska Press as Pirates of the Pacific, 1575-1742.

 

Gómez Platero, Eusebio, O.F.M.

Catálogo biográfico de los religiosos franciscanos de la provincia de San Gregorio Magno de Filipinas desde 1577 en que llegaron los primeros á Manila hasta los de nuestros días. Manila : Imprenta del Real Colegio de Santo Tomás, 1880.

 

Leonard, Irving A.

“Document: An Attempted Indian Attack on the Manila Galleon.” Hispanic American Historical Review, 111 (1931), 69-76.

 

Lorente Rodrigañez, Luis Maria

“El galeón de Manila,” Revista de Indias, 5 (1944), 105-20.

 

Mathes, W. Michael.

Vizcaíno and Spanish Expansion in the Pacific Ocean 1580-1630. San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1968.

 

Pajarón Parody, Concepción.

Don Fernando Manuel de Bustamante y Bustillo. Governador de Filipinas (1717-1719). Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, 1964.

 

Pérez, Elviro Jorde, O.S.A.

Catálogo bio-bibliográfico de los religiosos Agustinos de la provincia del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de las Islas Filipinas desde su fundación hasta nuestros dias …. Manila: Colegio de Santo Tomas, 1901.

 

Peterson, Thomas K.

Secrets of the Manila Galleons. Corvallis, Oregon: privately published, 2002; second edition, 2005. 163pp.

 

Quirino, Carlos; and Abraham Laygo

Regésto Guión Catálogo de los Documentos Existentes en México sobre Filipinas. Manila: El Comité de Amistad Filipino-Méxicana, 1965.

 

Robles, Eliodoro G.

Supplement to the Calendar of Philippine Documents in the Ayer Collection, Edited by Paul S. Lietz. Chicago: The Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library, 1958 [Unpublished]. Manuscript listing, Newberry Library, Ayer Collection, Call Number = 290/L6128/1956 suppl.

 

Sádaba del Carmen, Francisco, O.R.S.A.

Catálogo de los religiosos agustinos recoletos de la Provincia de San Nicolás de Tolentino de Filipinas desde el año 1606, en que llegó la primera mission á Manila, hasta nuestros días…. Manila: Asilo de Huerfanos del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, 1906.

 

Schurz, William Lytle

The Manila Galleon. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1939.

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“The voyage of the Manila galleon from Acapulco to Manila.” Hispanic American Historical Review, 2 (1919), 632-38.

 

Spate, O. H. K.

The Spanish Lake. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979.

Monopolists and Freebooters. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.

 

TePaske, John J.

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TePaske, John J.; and Herbert S. Klein

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Wagner, Henry R.

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Galleon Miscellany

 

Que para ir bien reglador la Navegacion, ha de ser la arribada de la Nave, o Naves á Acapulco en el mes de Diciembre; o lo mas inmediato a él, y se ha de proporcionar su retorno, y salida para principios del mes de Abril, o entrado poco este mes; de forma, que ha de verificarse su arribo visita, descarga de estos quarto meses, medio mas, o menos, a lo qual han de cooperar, y dirigirse todas las providencias, y operaciones del Govierno de Nueva España assi para que no se retarde un punto, como para que se executen sin fraude de mi Real Hacienda, ni exceso en los limites del permiso.

Manila, 28 September 1761, point 20 of 42 numbered points regarding how best to handle the Acapulco/Manila trade, based on transcribed royal decrees; copied from ff. 31v-32, AGI, Filipinas, “1771. Testimonio literal ….”

 

… que desde el año de mil setecientos treinta y seis hasta el pasado de mil setecientos y setenta se han despachado de estas Yslas para el Puerto de Acapulco consistenten en el Reynos de Nueva España los treinta y tres Buques de Carga de la Carrera que individualmente se nominan los dos de ellos en lastre que fueron el Patache Santo Domingo en mil setecientos quarenta y cinco, y Nuestra Señora de la Porteria en cinquenta y siete, pues con que este ultimo llevo generala para el comercio no se puso nada y que en los años de quarenta y quarto, y sesenta y tres no se despacharon Barco por la Guerra. Que ha havido las quarto arrivadas que hicieron los quarto Barcos que fueron los nombrados Nuestra Señora del Rosario en el año de mil setecientos quarenta y tres; el Nuestra Señora del Rosario y los Santos Reyes en el setecientos quarenta y ocho; y la Fragata San Carlos en mil setecientos sesenta y ocho, y la Fragata San Joseph en mil setecientos y sesenta. Que los nombrados Nuestra Señora de Cobadonga y la Santisima Trinidad fueron apresados por los Yngleses; el primero por el Almirante Yngles Jorge Amon en mil setecientos quarenta y tres, y el Segundo por Navios de la Esquadra de la misma Nacion desenada a la expedicion contra esta Plaza de Manila en mil setecientos sesenta y dos cuias perdidas generales, y la del ya nombrado Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Zaragoza que naufragó en setecientos y cinquenta segun lo manifestado, ascieden juntas a setecientos ochenta y seis mil quinientos sesenta y dos pesos como en su clase se figura en decadencia del comercio: Que el total numbero de Piezas que este podia haver embarcado conforme al Real Permiso en los treinta y cinco años que comprehende esta constancia a quarto mil en cada uno son ciento y quarenta mil Piezas que segun el regulado de Ciento viente y cinco pesos cada una … asciende a dies y siete millones y quinientos mil pesos ….

AGI, Filipinas, “1771. Testimonio literal …,” ff. 124-25.

 

Also see Dahlgren, 104-07 for a full and authoritative description of the voyages from Manila to Acapulco and their pattern and contingencies, much of it taken from the British Museum manuscript “Add. MS. 19293.” This material should be supplemented from the translation and transcription of detailed information from the British Museum manuscript “Add. MS. 17625, ff. 74-82, that he provides on pp. 131-35.